Review of British Warplanes

by William Herbert Randall

The English conception of airpower is an organization equipped, and trained for action in three separate fields. It must be able to function as an individual force, cooperate in support of the British Navy, or act as a unit of the British Army.

To make this flexibility possible, the RAF is divided into five commands and a Fleet Air Arm, each having a special duty to perform. The Fleet Air Arm is a branch of the Navy, its planes being piloted and serviced by men with naval ranks and ratings. The Coastal Command also cooperates with the Navy but is not a branch of that force, its duties being that of coastal reconnaissance. The Bombing Command is responsible for air offensives against the enemy, while the Fighter Command is charged with the repelling of enemy bombers and fighters and the defense of the homeland.

The British Army does not have an air arm but depends upon the RAF for air support. Army cooperation squadrons were formerly assigned at need to the generals commanding the ground forces and were directed by those officers. Recently, the Army Cooperation Command was formed; squadrons, pilots, and service crews being permanently assigned to this Command. The Training Command is responsible for the training of all RAF personnel throughout the Empire.

Designations and Markings

No manufacturer's designations are used to identify Royal Air Force aircraft. The majority of their planes are given names depictive of their duty. Association of names will soon familiarize one with every ship in the RAF. There are no RAF rudder markings, but the fin has three vertical stripes; red forward, white center, and blue aft, The British bullseye consists of a red dot, surrounded by a white and a blue circle in turn. This insignia appears on both sides of the fuselage, halfway between the cockpit and the tail, and on the upper and undersides of the wings near the tips. On planes used for night duties, the wing insignia consists of red and blue circles and the usual red, white, and blue fuselage markings have an outer circle of yellow.

All British warplanes are now camouflaged so identically that a template is used for every type of plane, the belly and lower wing undersurfaces being painted a neutral gray to blend with the sky while in flight.

In the following summaries of RAF aircraft will be found Canadian and Australian planes as well as those built in England and America. For clarification of their specific duties, the craft are listed under the Command for which they were intended rather than by types. If any details are omitted in a plane's description, it is because those details are military secrets. Planes no longer in production are noted.

Training Command

Aircraft of the Training Command are based throughout the Empire, wherever training centers are located. For obvious reasons, it is not possible to list the number of training stations, their locations, or student quotas.

Oxford (RAF) — Airspeed three-place low-wing advanced monoplane. Two Armstrong-Siddeley Cheetah X 875 horse power 7-cylinder air-cooled radials.

Siskan III (RCAF) — Armstron-Whitworth two-place biplane. Armstrong-Siddeley 400 horse power 7-cylinder air-cooled radial. No longer produced.

Tutor (RAF) — Avro two-place biplane. Armstrong-Siddeley Lynx IVc 215 horse power 7-cylinder air-cooled radial. No longer produced.

Seatutor (RAF) — Avro two-place biplane on twin pontoons. Armstrong-Siddeley Lynx IVc 215 horse power 7-cylinder air-cooled radial.

626Land (RAF) — Avro two-place advanced biplane. Armstrong-Siddeley Cheetah Mk V 270 horse power 7-cylinder air-cooled radial.

626Sea (RAF) — Avro two-place advanced biplane on twin pontoons. Armstrong-Siddeley Cheetah Mk V 270 horse power 7-cylinder aircooled radial. 270 horse power 7-cylinder aircooled radial.

Maple Leaf II (RCAF) — Canadian Car & Foundry two-place aerobatic biplane. Warner Super Scarab 145 horse power 7-cylinder air-cooled radial.

Crane (RCAF) — Cessna (US T-50) two- to five-place low-wing transitional monoplane. Two Jacobs L-4MB 225 horse power 7-cylinder air-cooled radials.

Wacket (RAAF) — Commonwealth two-place low-wing primary monoplane. De Havilland Gipsy Major I 130 horse power aircooled inverted 4-in-line.

Tiger Moth landplane (RAF & RCAF) — De Havilland two-place biplane De Havilland Gipsy Major I 130 horse power air-cooled inverted 4-in-line.

Tiger Moth Seaplane (RAF & RCAF) — De Havilland two-place biplane on twin pontoons. De Havilland Gipsy Major I 130 horse power air-cooled inverted 4-in-line.

Moth Minor (RCAF) — De Havilland two-place low-wing primary monoplane. De Havilland Gipsy Minor 90 horse power air-cooled inverted 4-in-line.

7C (RCAF) — Fleet two-place primary biplane. Armstrong-Siddeley Genet Major 150 horse power 7-cylinder air-cooled radial. No longer produced.

60 (RCAF) — Fleet two-place low-wing mission-training monoplane. Jacobs L-6MB 330 horse power 7-cylinder air-cooled radial.

Owlet (RAF) — General Aircraft two-place low-wing monoplane on tricycle landing gear. Cirrus Major 150 horse power aircooled inverted 4-in-line.

Hart (RAF) — Hawker two-place advanced biplane. Rolls-Royce Kestrel X 585 horse power liquid- cooled V-12. No longer produced.

Norseman (RCAF) — Noorduyn multi-place high-wing mission-training monoplane. Secondary mission, light transport. Pratt & Whitney Wasp S3H1 550 horse power 9-cylinder air-cooled radial.

Harvard I (RAF & RCAF)— North American two-place low-wing advanced monoplane. Pratt & Whitney Wasp S3H1 550 horse power 9-cylinder air-cooled radial. No longer produced.

Harvard II (RAF & RCAF)— North American two-place low-wing advanced monoplane. Pratt & Whitney Wasp S3H1 550 horse power air-cooled radial.

Yale (RCAF) — North American two-place low-wing monoplane. Wright Whirlwind R-975-E3 420 horse power 9-cylinder aircooled radial.

Proctor (RAF) — Percival four-place low-wing mission-training monoplane. De Havilland Gipsy II 205 horse power air-cooled inverted 6-in-line.

Miles Magister (RAF) — Phillips & Powis two-place low-wing primary monoplane. De Havilland Gipsy Major II 138 horse power air-cooled inverted 4-in-line.

Miles Master (RAF) — Phillips & Powis two-place low-wing fighter-training monoplane. Rolls-Royce Kestrel 550 horse power liquid-cooled V-12.

Miles Master II (RAF) — Phillips & Powis two-place low-wing fighter-training monoplane. Bristol Mercury air-cooled radial.

Miles Whitney Straight (RAAF)— Phillips & Powis two-place low-wing advanced monoplane. De Havilland Gipsy Major I 130 horse power air-cooled invert d 4-in-line.

Snargasher (RAF) — Reid & Sigrist three-place mid-wing advanced monoplane. Two De Havilland Gipsy Six II air-cooled inverted 6-in-line.

PT-7 (RCAF) — White Canadian Aircraft two-place primary biplane. Warner KR5-S2 160 horse power 7-cylinder air-cooled radial,

Fighter Command

The Fighter Command includes — as well as the defending fighter planes of the RAF — searchlight brigades, barrage balloon equipment, anti-aircraft batteries, and Ground Observer Corps. The duty of Fighter Command aircraft is purely defensive in character, although it is always carried out in an offensive manner. Aircraft listed below include both first- and, second-line fighters as well as those getting into production.

Caribou (RAF) — BELL single-seat low-wing monoplane. Allison V1710-C37 1,090 horse power Prestone-cooled V-12.

Defiant (RAF) — BOULTON-PAUL two-place low-wing night monoplane. Rolls-Royce Merlin II 1,030 horse power liquid-cooled V-12.

Beaufighter (RAF & RAAF) — BRISTOL three-place mid-wing long-range convoy-fighter monoplane. Two Bristol Hercules Mark III 1,400 horse power air-cooled twin-row radials.

Mohawk (RAF) — CURTISS single-seat low-wing monoplane. Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp 900 horse power air-cooled twin-row radial. No longer produced.

Tomahawk (RAI ) — CURTISS single-seat low-wing monoplane. Allison V1710 C-15 1,090 horse power Prestone-cooled V-12. No longer. produced.

Kittyhawk (RAF) — Curtiss single-seat low-wing monoplane. Allison V1710 C-37 1,090 horse power Prestone-cooled V-12. Improved Tomahawk.

Gauntlet (RAF) — Gloster single- seat biplane. Bristol Mercury VI 620 horse power 9-cylinder aircooled radial. No longer produced.

Gladiator (RAF) — Gloster single-seat biplane. Bristol Mercury IX 795 horse power 9-cylinder aircooled radial. No longer produced.

Typhoon (RAF) — Hawker single-seat low-wing monoplane. Napier Sabre 2,850 horse power liquid-cooled X-24.

Tornado (RAF) — Hawker single-seat low-wing monoplane. Rolls-Royce Vulture 1,780 horse power liquid-cooled X-24.

Hurricane I (RAF) — Hawker single-seat low-wing monoplane. Rolls-Royce Merlin II 1,030 horse power liquid-cooled V-12. No longer produced.

Hurricane II (RAF) — Hawker single-seat low-wing monoplane. Rolls-Royce Merlin 1,300 horse power liquid-cooled V-12. Improved Hurricane I.

Lightning (RAF) — Lockheed single-seat low-wing interceptor monoplane. Two Allison V1710 C-15 1,090 horse power Prestone-cooled V-12s.

Mustang (RAF) — North American single-seat low-wing monoplane. Allison V1710 F-3R 1,150 horse power Prestone-cooled V-12.

Spitfire I (RAF) — Vickers Supermarine single-seat low-wing monoplane. Rolls-Royce Merlin II 1,030 horse power liquid-cooled V-12. No longer produced.

Spitfire II (RAF) — Vickers Supermarine single-seat low-wing monoplane. Rolls-Royce Merlin 1,300 horse power liquid-cooled V-12. Improved Spitfire I.

Vanguard (RAF) — Vultee single-seat low-wing monoplane. Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp 1,200 horse power 14-cylinder air-cooled twin-row radial.

Vengeance (RAF) — Vultee two-place low-wing dive-bomber-fighter monoplane. Wright Cyclone 1,600 horse power air-cooled twin-row radial.

Whirlwind (RAF) — Westland two-place long-range monoplane. Two Rolls-Royce Merlin II 1,030 horse power liquid-cooled V-12s.

Fleet Air Arm

A branch of the Royal Navy, the Fleet Air Arm is manned by Naval personnel and most of its aircraft are carried by aircraft carriers, capital ships, and cruisers. Fighters that can be used as dive-bombers and TSR (torpedo-spotter-reconnaissance) planes are based on the carriers. These machines perform dual duties and have folding wings for stowage purposes. For this reason, their performance is seldom equal to that of shore-based specialty planes. TSR planes spot for the fleet's guns, scout for enemy surface ships, and carry out torpedo and bombing attacks and fighters repel enemy aircraft and dive-bomb surface craft.

Shark — Blackburn two- or three-place TSR biplane, seaplane, or landplane. Armstrong=Siddeley Tiger VI 760 horse power 14-cylinder air-cooled twin-row radial. Some models powered with Bristol Pegasus. No longer produced.

Skua — Blackburn two-place low-wing carrier fighter and dive-bomber monoplane. Bristol Perseus XII 745 horse power 9-cylinder aircooled radial.

Roc — Blackburn two-place low-wing fighter monoplane. Bristol Perseus XII 745 horse power 9-cylinder air-cooled radial.

Buffalo — Brewster single-seat low-wing shipboard fighter monoplane. Wright Cyclone GR-1820-G205A 900 horse power 9-cylinder air-cooled radial.

Bermuda — Brewster two-place mid-wing carrier fighter and dive-bomber monoplane. Wright Cyclone R1820-G5 750 horse power 9-cylinder air-cooled radial.

Fulmar — Fairey two-place low-wing carrier fighter monoplane. Rolls-Royce Merlin X 1,145 horse power liquid-cooled V-12.

Swordfish — Fairey two- or three-place TSR carrier biplane. Bristol Pegasus III 690 horse power 9-cylinder air-cooled radial. No longer produced.

Battle — Fairey two- or three-place low-wing carrier reconnaissance dive-bomber monoplane. Rolls-Royce Merlin II 990 horse power liquid-cooled V-12. No longer produced.

Sea Fox — Fairey two-place catapult reconnaissance biplane on twin pontoons. Napier Rapier VI 355 horse power air-cooled H-16. No longer produced.

Albacore — Fairey two-place carrier TSR biplane. Bristol Taurus 1,065 horse power 14-cylinder aircooled twin-row radial.

Martlet — Grumman single-seat mid-wing carrier fighter monoplane. Wright Double Row Cyclone GR1820 G205A 1,200 horse power. 14-cylinder air-cooled radial.

Nimrod Mk II — Hawker single-seat carrier fighter biplane. Rolls-Royce Kestrel 550 horse power liquid-cooled V-12. No longer produced.

Fury Mk II — Hawker single-seat fighter biplane. Rolls-Royce Kestrel 550 horse power liquid-cooled V-12. No longer produced.

Henley — Hawker two-place low-wing carrier reconnaissance bomber. Also used for high speed target towing. Rolls-Royce Merlin III 1,030 horse power liquid-cooled V-12. No longer produced.

Osprey Mk IV — Hawker two-place fleet reconnaissance fighter biplane. Rolls-Royce Kestrel V 600 horse power liquid-cooled V-12. No longer produced.

Walrus — Vickers Supermarine five-place fleet spotting amphibian biplane. Bristol Pegasus VI 680 horse power 9-cylinder air-cooled radial pusher.

Coastal Command

The Coastal Command is in no way a part of the Royal Navy, but its duty requires close collaboration with the Admiralty. Shipborne aircraft, as has been explained, are seldom as good for a particular duty as land based specialty craft. Because of this, reconnaissance and convoying are carried out by Coastal Command aircraft.

About 50 percent of the Army Cooperation Command's pilots are Army officers sent to the RAF for training and given temporary RAF commissions. The duties of these squadrons are generally tactical reconnaissance, photography of enemy movements and. positions, and artillery spotting. Planes other than those listed as Cooperation craft are drawn from other Commands as the necessity arises. They then fall under the authority of the officer commanding the Army Cooperation Command. The following tabulation comprises all planes assigned to the Coastal Command and those special types permanently assigned to the Army Cooperation Command.

Envoy (RAF) — Airspeed four-place low-wing reconnaissance bomber monoplane. Two Armstrong-Siddeley Cheetah IX 310 horse power air-cooled radials.

Anson (RAF) — Avro four-place low-wing reconnaissance monoplane. Two Armstrong-Siddeley Cheetah IX 310 horse power 7-cylinder air-cooled radials.

Beaufort (RAF & RAAF) — Bristol four-place mid-wing reconnaissance-torpedo bomber monoplane. Two Bristol Taurus 1,065 horse power 14-cylinder air-cooled twin-row radials.

Blenheim Mk IV (RAF) — Bristol three-place low-wing attack-bomber monoplane. Two Bristol Mercury VIII 840 horse power 9-cylinder air-cooled radials.

Bolingbroke (RCAF) — Bristol version of the Blenheim, built by Canadian Fairchild Company. Same specifications and power.

C.40 (RAF) — Cierva two-place reconnaissance autogiro. Salmson 9G 175 horse power 9-cylinder aircooled radial. No longer produced.

Wirraway (RAAF) — Commonwealth two-place low-wing general purpose monoplane. Pratt & Whitney Wasp S1H1G 600 horse power 9-cylinder air-cooled radial. (North American NA-16 built in Australia.)

Catalina (RAF, RAAF, RCAF)— Consolidated five-place high-wing patrol bomber flying boat. Two Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp 1,050 horse power 14-cylinder air-cooled twin-row radials.

Demon — Hawker two-place Army Cooperation biplane. Rolls-Royce Kestrel V 560 horse power liquid-cooled V-12. No longer produced.

Hind — Hawker two-place Army Cooperation biplane. Rolls-Royce Kestrel V 600 horse power liquid-cooled V-12. No longer produced.

Hardy — Hawker two-place Army Cooperation biplane. Rolls-Royce Kestrel X 585 horse power liquid-cooled V-12. No longer produced.

Hector — Hawker two-place Army Cooperation biplane. Napier Dagger III 805 horse power air-cooled H-24. No longer produced.

Hudson I (RAF) — Lockheed four-place low-wing reconnaissance bomber monoplane. Two Wright Cyclone GR-1820 G102A 900 horse power 9-cylinder air-cooled radials. No longer produced.

Hudson II (RAF) — Lockheed four-place low-wing reconnaissance bomber monoplane. Two Wright Cyclone GR-1820 G205A 1,000 horse power 9-cylinder air-cooled radials.

N-3 PB (Norwegians with RAF)— Northrop three-place low-wing patrol bomber on twin pontoons. Wright Cyclone GR-2600-A2 1,200 horse power 14-cylinder air-cooled twin-row radial.

Miles Mentor — Phillips & Powis two-place low-wing Army Cooperation monoplane. De Havilland Gipsy Queen 205 horse power aircooled inverted 6-in-line.

Lerwick (RAF) — Saunders-Roe seven-place high-wing reconnaissance bomber flying boat. Two Bristol Hercules II 1,875 horse power 14-cylinder air-cooled twin-row radials.

London Mk II (RAF) — Saunders-Roe six-place reconnaissance biplane flying boat. Two Bristol Pegasus X 960 horse power 9-cylinder air-cooled radials.

Sunderland (RAF) — Short seven-place high-wing long-range reconnaissance flying boat. Four Bristol Pegasus XXII 810 horse power 9-cylinder air-cooled radials.

Singapore III (RAF) — Short six-place reconnaissance-patrol biplane flying boat. Two tractor Rolls-Royce Kestrel IX and two pusher Rolls-Royce Kestrel VIII liquid-cooled V-12s, each developing 675 horse power.

Ventura (RAF) — Vega four-place low-wing reconnaissance bomber monoplane. Two Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp R1880-S4C4-G 1,050 horse power 14-cylinder air-cooled twin-row radials.

Wellesley (RAF) — Vickers-Armstrong two-place reconnaissance torpedo bomber biplane. Bristol Pegasus XX 800 horse power 9- cylinder air-cooled radial.

Stranraer (RAF) — Vickers-Supermarine seven-place reconnaissance biplane flying boat. Two Bristol Pegasus X 840 horse power 9-cylinder air-cooled radials.

Lysander I — Westland two-place high-wing reconnaissance Army Cooperation monoplane. Bristol Mercury XII 890 horse power 9- cylinder air-cooled radial. No longer produced.

Lysander II — Westland two-place high-wing all purpose Army Cooperation monoplane. Bristol Perseus XII 905 horse power 9-cylinder air-cooled radial.

Wallace — Westland two-place general purpose Army Cooperation biplane. Bristol Pegasus MB 570 horse power 9-cylinder air-cooled radial. No longer produced.

Bomber Command

It is the duty of the Bomber Command to wage war with the enemy at points where the Army is not engaged and at places where the Navy cannot penetrate. Its craft must be in readiness to attack at a moment's notice. Among its duties are the attack and destruction of industrial, naval, military, and ammunition centers of the enemy.

Manchester (RAF) — Avro night low mid-wing monoplane. (Data restricted.) Reported to use two Rolls-Royce Vulture 2,000 horse power liquid-cooled X-24s.

Whitley Mk II (RAF) — Armstrong-Whitworth five-place low-wing heavy monoplane. Two Armstrong-Siddeley Tiger VIII 760 horse power 14-cylinder air-cooled twin-row radials with low-ratio superchargers.

Whitley Mk III (RAF) — Armstrong-Whitworth. Same as Mk II but with high-ratio superchargers.

Whitley Mk IV (RAF) — Armstrong-Whitworth. Same as Mk II with two Rolls-Royce Merlin IV 990 horse power liquid-cooled, V-12s.

Botha I (RAF) — Blackburn four-place high-wing monoplane. Two Bristol Perseus XA 900 horse power 9-cylinder air-cooled radials.

Seattle (RAF) — Boeing low-wing long-range heavy monoplane. Four Wright Cyclone R-1820 G205A 1,000 horse power 9-cylinder aircooled radials. (Later models are powered with four Wright Cyclone GR-2600 A5B 1,350 horse power 14-cylinder air-cooled twin-row radials.)

Bombay (RAF) — Bristol four- place high-wing monoplane. Two Bristol Pegasus XXII 890 horse power 9-cylinder air-cooled radial engines. Most of these machines have been converted to parachute troop transports with facilities for 24 fully-armed troopers.

Blenheim (RAF) — BRISTOL. Same as used by Coastal Command.

C.A.4 (RAAF) — Commonwealth Australian bomber now being tested. Data restricted.

Liberator (RAF) — Consolidated mid-wing long-range heavy monoplane. Four Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp R1830 SBC4G 1,100 horse power 14-cylinder air-cooled twin-row radials.

Cleveland (RAF) — Curtiss two-place dive-bomber biplane. Wright Cyclone R-1820G 950 horse power 9-cylinder air-cooled radial.

Boston I (RAF) — Douglas three-place mid-wing high-speed monoplane. Two Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp 900 horse power 14-cylinder air-cooled twin-row radials. No longer produced.

Boston III (RAF) — Douglas (US DB-7B) three-place twin-engine mid-wing attack bomber monoplane. Wright Double Row Cyclone GR2600 A5B 1,350 horsepower 14-cylinder air cooled twin row radial engines.

Havoc (RAF) — Douglas. Same as Boston III, equipped as a night bomber.

Digby (RCAF) — Douglas low-wing light monoplane. Two Wright Cyclone GR-1820 G205A 1,000 horse power 9-cylinder air-cooled radials. No longer produced.

Hendon (RAF) — Fairey six-place low-wing night monoplane. Two Rolls-Royce Kestrel VI 600 horse power liquid-cooled, V-12s. No longer produced.

Hampden (RAF) — Handley-Page four-place low-wing monoplane. Two Bristol Pegasus XVII 780 horse power 9-cylinder aircooled radials.

Harrow Mk I (RAF) — Handley-Page four-place high-wing heavy monoplane. Two Bristol Pegasus X 850 horse power 9-cylinder aircooled radials.

Harrow Mk II (RAF) — Handley-Page, Same as Mk I, with two Bristol Pegasus XX 885 horse power 9-cylinder air-cooled radials.

Hereford (RAF) — Handley-Page four-place low-wing monoplane. Two Napier Dagger 700 horse power air-cooled H-24s.

Maryland (RAF) — Martin low-wing medium monoplane. Two Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp R1880 S1C3G 1,050 horse power 14-cylinder air-cooled twin-row radials.

Baltimore (RAF) — Martin four-place mid-wing medium monoplane. Two Wright Double Row Cyclone 1,600 horse power air-cooled radials.

Stirling (RAF) — Short four-engine mid-wing heavy monoplane. Data restricted.

Wellington 1A (RAF) — Vickers Armstrong five-place mid-wing long-range monoplane. Two Bristol Pegasus XVIII 980 horse power 9-cylinder air-cooled radials.

Wellington III (RAF) — Vickers Armstrong. Same as 1A, with two Rolls-Royce Merlin 990 horse power liquid-cooled V-12s.

Chesapeake (RAF) — Vought Sikorsky two-place low-wing dive-bomber monoplane. Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp Jr R1530 SB4G 750 horse power 14-cylinder aircooled radial.

Miscellaneous Craft

There are a number of aircraft not assigned to Commands, but they do have a definite place in the RAF. These are listed with their specific duties.

314 — Boeing high-wing clipper ferry transport for return of ferry pilots to Canada. Four Wright Cyclone GR-1820 G102A 900 horse power 9-cylinder air-cooled radials.

CW-20 — Curtiss parachute troop transport low-wing monoplane. Two Wright Double Row Cyclone R-2600B 1,200 horse power 14- cylinder air-cooled radials.

DC-2 — Douglas low-wing communications monoplane. Two Wright Cyclone GR-1820 F52 760 horse power 9-cylinder air-cooled radials.

24J — Fairchild high-wing communications monoplane. Warner Super Scarab 145 horse power 7-cylinder air-cooled radial.

12A — Lockheed low-wing communications monoplane. Two Pratt & Whitney Wasp Jr SB-2 400 horse power 9-cylinder air-cooled radials.

Executive 7W — Spartan low-wing communications monoplane. Pratt & Whitney Wasp Jr SB-2 400 horse power 9-cylinder air-cooled radial.

Reliant SR10J — Stinson high-wing communications monoplane. Lycoming R680E3 285 horse power 9-cylinder air-cooled radial.

105 — Stinson high-wing communications monoplane. Continental A80 80 horse power air-cooled 4-cylinder horizontally-opposed.

BL-75 — Taylorcraft high-wing communications monoplane. Lycoming O-145C 75 horse power 4-cylinder air-cooled horizontally-opposed.

This article was originally published in the April, 1942, issue of Flying Aces magazine, vol 56, no 1, pp 18-22, 78-79.
The PDF of this article includes photos of Handley-Page Harrow Mk I, Saunders-Roe Larwick, Blackburn Botha I, B-17C (identified as Seattle), Hurricane, Stirling, Spitfire, PBY Catalina. Flying Aces was printed on unpolished pulp paper, which has aged considerably, so that the resulting quality of the printed photos is not up to the standards of the original or of many of the other magazines that have survived to the present.
Photos are not credited.