Front cover
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1903 * 1947

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1903 * 1947

Prepared for private circulation by
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Copyright 1948
Cleveland, Ohio

Printed in USA
J Horace McFarland Co
Harrisburg, PA
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The widespread interest shown in the Automotive Chronicle published by Eaton last year led us to believe that a companion book on the Aviation Industry might be equally welcomed by our friends. It is with considerable pride, therefore, that we present A Chronicle of the Aviation Industry in America as the most complete single volume of this type ever published in the field of aeronautics.

The history of aviation is the story of man's continual struggle to build an aircraft that will carry him higher, faster, farther, and safer. It's as simple as that! Yet, in the process, more than 3,000 different models and styles of heavier-than-air craft alone have been built since man found wings in 1903. Aviation has long since ceased to be an industry within itself. The fields of electronics, metallurgy, chemistry, and even medicine, to mention but a few, have become directly involved and identified with it.

With so many factors — physical, as well as social, economic, and political — playing important roles in the development and growth of the industry, the selection of pictures and items for a limited-size book has been a difficult but interesting task. In this instance, we have confined ourselves primarily to the heavier-than-air field and to the activities of those individuals and companies who designed, built, and flew airplanes between 1903 and 1947. Since the Army, Navy, and other Government agencies have figured so importantly in the development of American aviation, many references to their activities will be found throughout. Items of political significance which effected the industry as a whole have been included as a matter of record.

We are particularly indebted to Welman A Shrader, Director of Publications for the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences, who provided us with the wealth of background material. While it is impossible to acknowledge the hundreds of individual books, periodicals, and reference sources used in this compilation, particular credit is due to the Institute's W A M Burden Library, The Paul Kollsman Lending Library, and the Sherman M Fairchild Photographic Collection.


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Background of Aviation in America

The history of the airplane and man's ability to propel himself through the air in controlled flight dates back only 44 years to 1903. However, it may be interesting to note in passing that numerous other Americans were interested in, and made contributions to, aeronautics during a 120-year period before the Wright Brothers successfully flew an airplane.

Benjamin Franklin, better known to every schoolboy as the inventor of the printing press and one of the founders of our country, was probably America's first aviation "enthusiast." Some of his letters, written to compatriots and fellow scientists in 1783 and 1784, indicate not only a keen interest in the mechanics of the first gas-filled balloon but also a prophetic understanding of its possible future development as an implement of war.

To a 13-year-old lad, Edward Warren, goes the distinction of being the first American to actually leave the ground in a balloon. This historic event took place in a field near Baltimore, MD, on June 24, 1784. The captive balloon, a Montgolfier-type built by Peter Carnes, had been allowed to ascend with an empty basket to test its stability. Whether the builder's weight was too great or his courage forsook him may never be known. The records show only that when the time came for the preannounced ascent, young Warren volunteered and was readily accepted.

In November of this same year, Dr John Jeffries, of Boston, won even greater acclaim when he sailed across the English Channel in a balloon with Pierre Blanchard, a Frenchman.

Ballooning aroused considerable interest in this country among spectators in the years prior to the Civil War, but only a few Americans achieved distinction in the art. Notable exceptions are the flights of Charles F Durant in 1830; Richard Clayton's long-distance flight from Cincinnati, OH, to Munroe County, VA, in 1835; and the various ascents and overland flights of John Wise, John La Mountain, and John Haddock, in 1859.

The Civil War gave America its first opportunity to test the balloon as a military weapon. Poor administration and lack of coordination between the civilian-status aeronauts and the Army allowed only several noteworthy results, in spite of the abilities of T S C Lowe and his command of seven balloons and such aeronauts as Paullin, Steiner, Starkweather, and the Allen brothers.

The years following the Civil War brought forth new conceptions of "air vehicles" in increasing numbers. Airships, ornithopters, flying steamships, and other types of craft were conceived and patented. Few were successful, although some companies and air transportation services were organized and promoted. Ballooning became increasingly popular, and toward the end of the century numerous Aero Clubs were to be found in the major cities throughout the country.

The steps that paved the way for the final invention and development of the airplane had their start in America in the late 1880s and 90s. During this period, serious experiments with man-carrying gliders were carried on by Octave Chanute, in Michigan, and by John Montgomery, in California. Chanute's book, Progress in Flying Machines, first published as a series of magazine articles starting in 1889, aroused considerable interest in the possibilities of flight. In 1895 James Means began publishing his Aeronautical Annuals, giving up-to-date information on latest aeronautical developments.

The experiments and writings of these men stirred the imaginations of others — including those of Samuel P Langley, Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, and two brothers of Dayton, Ohio, Orville and Wilbur Wright. While Langley succeeded in building a model tandem monoplane that flew, his man-carrying machine of similar design was a failure and crashed into the Potomac River on both launching attempts in 1903.

Meanwhile, the Wright Brothers were carrying out experiments with controllable box kites and gliders. From 1900 to 1903, they scientifically advanced the development of their various gliders until they felt sure of their ability to control such craft in powered flight. Not until then, did they set about the task of designing and building an engine for it. The rest of the story is history — highlights of which are briefly set forth in the following pages.

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March 23 — Wright Brothers apply for patents on their improved glider and flying machine.

September 25 — The Wright Brothers arrive at Kitty Hawk, NC, to prepare for their epoch-making flights.

December 8 — Samuel P Langley's Aerodrome, piloted by Charles Manly, plunges into the Potomac River in second launching attempt and is completely wrecked.

December 14 — Wilbur Wright makes first test flight with aeroplane, traveling 35 to 40 ft and lasting 3.5 sec, but breaks machine on landing.

December 17 — Orville Wright makes first flight in heavier-than-air machine, rising several feet off the ground and remaining in the air 12 sec. Three additional flights are made the same day, with Orville and Wilbur taking turns at flying the machine. The last flight, with Wilbur at the controls, lasts 59 sec and covers a distance of 852 ft. (See illus)

December 18 — Although the Wright Brothers had sent a telegram to their father in Dayton asking him to give details of the flight to the press, the newspaper accounts appearing today are largely imaginative. Only three newspapers in the country carry any mention of it, the Norfolk Virginian-Pilot and the Cincinnati Enquirer being the only two that give front-page space to the item.

December 31 — Cash outlay of the Wright Brothers for building and flying their first power plane is less than $1,000. This includes their railroad fare from Dayton, OH, to Kitty Hawk and, return.


January 8 — The Wright Brothers give to the newspapers an accurate description of their flights on December 17, 1903, but many papers, notably the New York Herald, continue to publish preposterous statements about the machine.

March 1 — First scientific accounts of Wright Brothers' machine and successful flights appear in A I Root's magazine, Gleanings in Bee Culture, and in another article, by Octave Chanute, in Popular Science Monthly.

August 3 — Capt Thomas S Baldwin accomplishes first circuit flight in a navigable balloon equipped with Curtiss motor, at Oakland, CA. (See illus p 8)

September 7 — Wright Brothers complete their first derrick catapult for launching their planes. Through this new device, only 50-ft run is necessary to put plane in the air.

September 20 — Wright Brothers accomplish the first successful "bank" and complete circular flight at Dayton.

November — British Government, through Colonel Capper, who visits the Wright Brothers in Dayton, indicates interest in their machine. Wright Brothers build their second machine, but their total flying time during 1904 is only 45 min.


January 10 — Wright Brothers write Colonel Capper asking if he is sure British Government is interested in their machine.

January 1 — Wright Brothers write their congressman to determine if their experiments and machine are of interest to the US Government. The reply is a form letter from President of the Board of Ordnance and Fortifications indicating that Board is not interested in "financing experiments."

February 5 — Capt Thomas S Baldwin, in his airship California Arrow, races a Pope-Toledo automobile (fastest on Pacific Coast) from Chutes Park, Los Angeles, to the Raymond Hotel, Pasadena, a distance of 10 miles. Baldwin reaches destination 3 min before auto arrives.

February 11 — British War Office sends letter to Wright Brothers asking them to submit terms for purchase of their aeroplane.

March 18 — Prof Montgomery glides down 2,500 ft in his glider from a balloon at Leonards, CA.

April 26 — Montgomery files 46 patent claims, including one covering "parabolically curved wings"

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April 29—Daniel Maloney, in Montgomery glider, glides 8 miles from a balloon about 4,000 ft up, at Santa Clara, CA.

May — Wright Brothers begin assembling a machine that is all new except for the motor and the propeller-driving mechanism.

July 18 — Daniel Maloney killed while gliding from a balloon at 2,000 ft.

September 26 — Orville Wright, at Dayton, flies 11.12 miles in 18 min, 9 sec.

October 5 — Wright Brothers achieve their longest flight to date: 24.2 miles in 38 min, 3 sec, at Dayton.

October 9 — At urging of Octave Chanute, Wrights again write to US Government offering their services to Secretary of War. Reply is another rebuff.

November — Aero Club of America, with 300 members interested in ballooning, is founded with headquarters in New York City.

December 31—A total of 50 flights made by the Wrights this year in their third machine. Average speed for all flights, 38 mph.


January — First Aero Exhibition in America held at New York in connection with Automobile Show in 69th Regiment Armory, under auspices of Aero Club of America.

February 27 — Prof Samuel Pierpont Langley, age 72, dies at Aiken, SC.

May 22 — Patent No 821,393 issued to Wright Brothers on a Flying Machine.

September 13 — (France) Santos Dumas makes first officially recorded aeroplane flight in Europe. In air 8 sec.

September 18 — Prof Montgomery granted patent on warping wing. (This patent was later to become a subject of discussion in the Wright-Curtiss suits and in claims of Montgomery heirs against US Government.)

September 30 — First Gordon Bennett Balloon Race won by Lt Frank P Lahm and Major Henry B Hersey, US Army balloonists, at Paris, France.

December 27 — Arnold Fordyce, French emissary, visits Wrights in Dayton and secures an option to purchase one flying machine for $200,000.

December 31 — Wright Brothers do no flying during this year, but work developing a new engine having vertical instead of horizontal cylinders.

December — The skepticism of the Aero Club of America and of the Scientific American magazine regarding the Wright Brothers' machine is finally overcome.


March — Aero Club of America holds its first Annual Banquet at Hotel St Regis, New York.

Spring — Representative Herbert Parsons, of New York, sends President Theodore Roosevelt clipping from Scientific American about the Wright flying machine. President Roosevelt forwards it to Secretary of War Taft for further action.

May 1 — Wilbur Wright sails for Europe to complete negotiations for purchases of flying machines by Great Britain, France, Italy, and Germany.

May 31 — Upon request of Ordnance Board of US War Department, Wright Brothers submit a formal proposal offering one of their flying machines, capable of carrying two men 200 kilometers at not less than 50 kph, for $100,000.

June 9 —First building at any exposition devoted exclusively to aeronautics in the history of the world is dedicated at Jamestown Exposition.

July —Aeronautical Division established in Office of Chief Signal Officer, US Army, thereby marking the beginning of an Army air force.

Summer — Glenn L Martin builds his first glider.

Summer — Aerial Experiment Association formed, comprised of Glenn H Curtiss, F W Baldwin, A D McCurdy, Lt Thomas Selfridge, and Alexander Graham Bell.

September — Scientific American Magazine offers a Flying Machine Trophy.

November — Curtiss Motor Vehicle Company formed at Hammondsport, NY, to manufacture engines, motorcycles, airships, aeroplanes, and low-priced automobiles.

December — US Army Signal Corps advertises for bids on an aeroplane. Wright Brothers, F Scott, and A M Herring submit proposals and make the 10% deposit required. The Wright bid is $25,000.

December 31 — As of this date, only seven men in America have actually flown in powered aeroplanes: Wilbur Wright, Orville Wright, A M Herring, F W Baldwin, Lt Thomas Selfridge, Glenn H Curtiss, and J A D McCurdy.

Other companies incorporated this year to manufacture "flying machines" include: American Airship & Balloon Corp (capital $200,000); Ernst Flying Machine Co, Dundee Lake,NJ ($25,000).

Patents for various designs of "flying machines" issued during the year to: Dr Alexander Graham Bell, A Brandl, A P Bliven, B Connolly, W H Cook, A and H Defaux, F. E. Felts, R Lewitz, W Morgan, H P McNeill, and M Nial.

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February 1 — Bids opened by Chief Signal Officer for the first US Government-owned aeroplane.

February 10 — Formal contract for Army's first flying machine signed by Signal Corps with Wright Brothers.

March 12 — F W Baldwin pilots the Red Wing, first biplane built by Aerial Experiment Association, in its initial flight at Lake Keuka.

May 19 — Lt T E Selfridge, first US military man to fly a "heavier-than-air" machine, pilots the Aerial Experiment Association's second experimental biplane, the White Wing.

May 21 — Wilbur Wright makes second trip to Europe.

June 21 — First flight of the Aerial Experiment Association's third aeroplane, the June Bug.

June 30 — Air strength of the US Army at this time is three officers and ten men — all in balloon troops.

July 4 — Glenn Curtiss, piloting the June Bug, wins the Scientific American Trophy by flying one kilometer before official witnesses at a preannounced time and place, at Hammondsport, NY.

July 17 — First City Ordinance pertaining to aircraft, prescribing limits of flight, annual license, brakes, lights, signal system; etc, is passed by the town of Kissimmee, FL.

August 8 — Wilbur Wright makes first flight in Europe at Champ d'Auvours, France.

September 3 — Orville Wright makes first demonstration flight for Army at Fort Myer.

September 9 — Lt F P Lahm is first Army passenger carried in Wright Flyer during trials at Fort Myer.

September 17 — In final flight at Fort Myer, the Wright Flyer crashes, killing Lt Thomas Selfridge and injuring Orville Wright.

November 3 — Aeronautic Society, organized 5 months ago, holds its first Tournament and Exhibition at Morris Park, Westchester County, NY, before assemblage of 20,000 people.

December 6 — First flight of Silver Dart, fourth aeroplane of Aerial Experiment Association.

Congress appropriates $30,000 to Army Aviation for 1909.

While the Wrights and Curtiss are the only ones achieving any degree of success in building and flying aeroplanes this year, many other individuals and organizations experiment with and construct vehicles with which they hope to fly. Among the names receiving publicity in this connection during the year are: Adams, Andreae, Berlinger, Boland, Bourdin, Beach & Willard, Bradley, Bokor, Bates, Bulask-Hidalgo, Baptiste, Bulzing-Slowen, Babcock Robinson & Gleason, Clarke, Call, Culver, DeHaven & Watkins, Downer, Dixon, Dorland, English, Eichenfeldt, Greene, Gould-Content & Loening, Gillespie, Hendrickson, Hezog Bros, Hudson & O'Brien, Irvine, Jean, Kerrison, Kimball, Klassen, Kunow, Kinek, Loose, Lawrence, Lindsay, Lane, Luyties, Lake, Myers, Metcalf, Ochnos, Orme, Potts, Posadas, Purcell, Prentice, Richardson, Rickman, Raiche, Rogers, Robinson, Roshon, Schneider, Smith, Shafter, Snell, Smidley, Stadtler, Scott, Steilan, Telfer, Thomas, Triaca, Twining, Thompson, Williams, Wade, Wilson, Willoughby, Walden, Zerbe, and Zornes.
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February — Congress votes $300 gold medal to Wright Brothers in recognition of the success of their work.

March — Amherst College establishes first recorded air marker, placing word "Amherst" in large white 35-ft letters on campus.

March 3 — A M Herring, Cortlandt Field Bishop, and Glenn H Curtiss form syndicate, with a capital stock of about $360,000, to acquire Herring's patents pending in the US and the G H Curtiss Manufacturing Company. New organization plans to build "Curtiss-Herring" aeroplanes which will sell at $7,500.

March 14 — Aeroplane of William R Kimball christened by Miss Anna Held, at Morris Park.

June 17-18 — Wright Brothers receive Aero Club of America Medals from President Taft. General Allen presents Congressional Medal. Governor of Ohio and Mayor of Dayton present State and City Medals.

June 22 — Aeroplane sales agency established by Wyckoff, Church & Partridge, automobile sales concern in New York, to handle the Curtiss aeroplane.

June 28 - July 30 — Orville Wright completes final tests for Government prior to delivery of an aeroplane under terms of original contract.

July 17 — Curtiss flies around circular course for a total distance of 24.7 miles to win second leg of Scientific American Trophy.

August — Wrights close contract with some wealthy men in Germany for the formation of a German-Wright Company.

August 29 — Glenn H Curtiss wins speed tests in Rheims, France, at an average speed of 46.5 mph over a 20-kilometer course.

September—Wright Brothers bring suit against Herring-Curtiss Company for patent infringements.

September 7 — US Army's first aerodrome established at College Park, MD.

September 29 — In connection with the Hudson-Fulton celebration, Wilbur Wright makes flights from Governors Island around the Statue of Liberty and up the Hudson past Grant's Tomb.

October 8-26 — Wilbur Wright trains two Army pilots at College Park, as provided for in Government contract. Lt Frederic E Humphreys is first to solo, followed a few minutes later by Lt Frank P Lahm.

November 3 — Dr William H Greene in Greene biplane makes passenger-carrying record at Morris Park, NY, carrying A Leo Stevens and two others as passengers for short flights.

November 22—The Wright Company is incorporated with a paid-in capital stock of $200,000. Offices are established in New York, but factory is located in Dayton, Ohio.

November 23 — Aero Club of America sets rules governing the licensing of aviators.

Fall — Glenn L Martin organizes the Glenn L Martin Company around his modest aeroplane construction shop in old abandoned church at Santa Ana, CA. Prior to this year, no two aeroplanes of identical design existed in America.

Other companies organized this year with the avowed purpose of building and flying aeroplanes are: Aeronautic Exhibition Co; Aeroplane Exhibiting Co; American Aerial Advertising & Navigation Co; American Aeroplane Co; Bachmann Aeroplane Co; California Aerial Mfg. Co; FIAT Co; The Flexible Aeroplane Co; Flying Auto Co; Horgan Flying Machine Co.; jean Flying Machine Co.; National Aerial Navigation Co. of America; NY Aerial Mfg & Navigation Co; Page's Aeroplane RR Co; San Diego Aeroplane Co; Schroeder Aerial Navigation Co; Scientific Aeroplane & Airship Co; Spokane-Chicago Aerial Transportation Co; Standard Aviator Co; Fred J Titus Co; and Wagner Aeroplane Co.
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January — Cleveland Aero Club, with H C Gammeter as president and C Forbes, Jr, secretary, is organized at Cleveland, Ohio.

January 3 — Federal Circuit Court at Buffalo, NY, grants a temporary restraining order against the Herring-Curtiss Company and Glenn H Curtiss to prevent them from manufacturing or exhibiting. aeroplanes infringing on the Wright patents.

February — Glenn H Curtiss develops new hydro-aeroplane at North Island, San Diego, which successfully flies out to USS Pennsylvania, lands on water, is hoisted aboard, swung back into water, and returns safely to land.

April 18 — A seaplane called the Flying Fish, developed by W Starling Burgess and Greeley S Curtis, successfully flies at Plum Island, MA.

May 25 — Orville and Wilbur Wright make a short hop at Huffman Field, Dayton, OH — the only time the Wright Brothers are ever in the air together.

May 29 — Glenn H Curtiss flies from Albany, NY, to New York City, 152 miles in 4 hr, 48 min, to win the New York World's $10,000 prize.

June — First night flight in America made by Charles W Hamilton at Camp Dickinson, Knoxville, TN.

June — W Starling Burgess and Greeley S Curtis organize firm, the Burgess Company & Curtis, Inc.

July 9 — Walter Brookins, in Wright biplane, makes altitude record of 6,175 ft at Atlantic City, NJ, winning $5,000 prize.

August 8 — Tricycle landing gear fitted to Army's Wright biplane to replace skids.

August — McCurdy sends and receives first wireless messages from an aeroplane in flight at Sheepshead Bay, NY.

October 8 — Arch Hoxsey, in Wright biplane, flies from Springfield, IL, to St Louis, MO.

October 22-31 — International Aviation Meet, Belmont Park.

October 31 — Ralph Johnstone, in Wright biplane, makes altitude record of 9,714 ft at International Aviation Meet, Belmont Park, LI.

November 17 — Ralph Johnstone is killed at Denver City, CO, in Wright biplane.

November 23 — Octave Chanute dies at his home in Chicago at the age of 78 years.

December 31 — Arch Hoxsey is killed in Wright biplane at Los Angeles, CA.

December 31 — John B Moisant, head of group known as "International Aviators" at New Orleans, is thrown from his machine and killed.

Aero Club of America issues first licenses to five aviators: Glenn H Curtiss, No 1; Frank P Lahm, No 2; Louis Paulham, No 3; Orville Wright, No 4; Wilbur Wright, No 5.

Adding to the roster of hopeful aeroplane builders this year are: Aerial Mfg & Supplies Co; Aerial Navigation Syndicate; Aero Motion Co of America; Aeroplane & Automatic Balancing Machine Co; Aeroplane Mfg Co; Aerovehicle Co; Alden Sampson Mfg Co; American Aeroplane Mfg Co; American Aeroplane Mfg & Exhibition Co; Barberton Aviation Co; Bath Motor Co; Bennett-Christofferson Airship Co; Boston Aeronautical Mfg Co; Boughton Flying Machine Co; Buchanan Aeroplane Co; Burgess Co & Curtis, Inc; Charliss-Wendling Automatic Aeroplane Co; Christmas Aeroplane Co; Colfax Aeroplane Co; Cornelius Aeroplane Co; Coyne Helicopter Airship Co; Detroit Aeroplane Co; Fleiss Equipment; Frye & Heckle; Gallaudet Engineering Co.; General Aviation Co; Greer-Robbins; La Marr AeroCo ; Malasomma Aeroplane Co.; Marquette Aeroplane Co; Mathewson-Marr Aeroplane; Morrison Automatic Flying Machine Mfg Co; National Aircraft Construction Co; National Mfg & Aerial Exhibition Co; Newell Aerial Navigation Co; New York Italian Aeroplane Co; Pacific Aviation Co; Portland Aeroplane Co; Reimers-Mair Biplane Co; Rinek Aero Mfg Co; Romano Aerial Navigation Co; Ross Aeroplane Co; Sacramento Aerial Co; Smith-Matteson Mfg Co; Stella Aeroplane Co; Swivel Buggy & Wagon Co; Thomas Aerial & Flying Machine Co; Thomas Bros; Twin City Aviation & Exhibition Co; Walden Mfg Co; Western Aeroplane Exhibiting Co; and C A Witteman.
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Page 12 is a page of photos:
  From the back yards, woodsheds, and small shops of America emerge hundreds of so-called "aeroplanes." While the majority of them fail to leave the ground, the multiplicity of ideas and designs appearing during this era is indicative of the enthusiasm that prevails."
[ 9 photos ]
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January 18 — House of Representatives passes an appropriation of $125,000 for Army aeronautics.

February 23 — Curtiss demonstrates the first amphibian type of aeroplane equipped with wheels and floats.

March — Curtiss demonstrates the first hydro-triplane.

March 17 — US Government, after tests, accepts the first military aeroplane designed by Curtiss.

March—Navy lets contracts to Wright Brothers for one landplane and to Curtiss Airplane Company of Hammondsport for one landplane and one seaplane.

March — Curtiss Flying School moves from North Island to Hammondsport, NY, for summer work.

April 21 — Aeronautical Manufacturers Association incorporated under laws of Connecticut as membership corporation.

June — Lt John H Towers of US Navy ordered to Hammondsport to be taught to fly by Curtiss.

June 28 — Lincoln Beachey, in a Curtiss biplane, flies over Niagara Falls, down the Gorge, and under the Bridge.

July — US Navy receives its first aeroplanes: a Curtiss A-1, a Curtiss A-2, and a Wright B-1.

July 31 — Frank E Boland begins flying his tailless aeroplane at Mineola, LI.

August 10 — Glenn L Martin is granted FAI Aviator's Certificate No 56.

August 20 — Lincoln Beachey, in a Curtiss biplane, establishes world's altitude record of 11,642 ft.

September 11 - November 5 — Calbraith P Rogers makes first transcontinental aeroplane trip, flying from New York to Long Beach, CA, in 49 days.

September — First air mail in US is carried by Earle Ovington from Nassau Boulevard Aerodrome, LI, to Mineola, LI.

October 14 — Eugene Ely is killed in a Curtiss biplane.

October 31 — Prof J Montgomery killed in glider crash.

December 31 — There are now 82 licensed pilots in the US. Six aeroplanes are delivered to the Army this year.

Robert Collier donates a trophy to be awarded annually "for greatest achievement in aviation in America, the value of which has been demonstrated by actual use during the preceding year."

Collier Trophy for 1911 is awarded to Glenn H Curtiss for his development of the hydro-aeroplane.

Glenn L Martin moves his factory to Los Angeles, CA.

Miss Harriet Quimby is first woman licensed pilot in America; is also first woman to fly across English Channel.

Aeroplane accidents exact a toll of many lives this year, including those of Lt G E Kelly; Addison Lee Hartle; P A Kreamer; William Badger; J J Frisbee; F H Miller; R M Raymond; Dr C Clarke; Cromwell Dixon; Castellane.

It is estimated that more than 750 aeroplanes were built by private individuals this year. New companies set up to manufacture aeroplanes include: Aero-Development Co; Aeroplane Co of America; Alleas Aviation Co; Arbogast Aero Co; Baltimore Monoplane Co; Birmingham Aeroplane Co; Brooks Aeroplane Co; Brown Aeroplane Co; Burgess-Wiseman Mfg Co; Butler-Sanders; Call-Aerial Navigation Co; Carter Aeroplane Co; Chicago Aeroplane Mfg Co; Chickasha Aeroplane Co; Converse Automatic Aeroplane Co; Cooley Aerial Navigation Co; George E Cove Biplane Co; Curtiss Aeroplane Co; Detroit Aeronautic Construction Co; Doquet Aeroplane Co; Dyeoplane Co; Dyker Aeroplane Co; Eaton Bros.; Ellithorpe Aerial Co; Fisher Aero Craft Construction Co; Franco-American Aviation Co; Hamilton Aviation Co; Hamilton Aero Mfg Co; Harriman Aeromobile Co; Hempstead Plains Aviation Co; International Aeroplane Mfg Co; International Aviation Co; Iowa Aeroplane Co; Johnson Aeroplane Co.; Kuhnert Aerial Construction Co; Lamson Aeroplane Co; Lundgren Aeroplanc Co; Mattery Aviation Co; McCurdy-Willard Co; Meteoric Aeroplane Co; Myers Plane Co; National Aero Co; National Aerial Navigation & Equipment Co; National Aviation & Construction Co; Nowoselsky Bros; Ovington Aero Co; Peets & Deetor; Penn Aero Construction Co; Piceller Aeroplane & Supply Co; Provan & Rankin; Saliger & Kerrigan; L E Schlotterback Mfg Co; Sheaf & DeBerri; Siedlinger Aeroplane Co; Slinn Aeroplane Co; Sloane Aeroplane Co; Rex Smith Aeroplane Co; Standard Airship Co; Stebbing-Gegnet; Strobel Aviation Co; Sumner & Dreyfuss Co; United Aeroplane Mfg Co; US Aeroplane Co; and Western Aviation Co.
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January — C P Rogers receives Gold Medal Award from Aero Club of America in recognition of his transcontinental flight.

January — Charles B Kirkham, motor manufacturer, begins to build aeroplanes.

January — R C Fowler makes second transcontinental flight, flying from Jacksonville, FL, to San Francisco, CA, a distance of 2,232 miles in 151 days.

January — Frank E Boland introduces his airspeed meter.

January 1 — Naval Aviation Camp moves to North Island, San Diego, from Annapolis.

January 11 — Riley Scott begins flights to test his bomb-sighting and dropping device.

February — Wright Brothers produce new model incorporating a patented stability device that automatically banks the aeroplane at a correct angle when turning.

February — L J Seely, head of the Elbridge Engine Company, announces a lightweight starter for starting up aeroplane motors.

March — Society of Aeronautic Engineers incorporated at Philadelphia.

March 1 — Bert Berry makes first parachute Jump in public at St Louis.

April 3 — C P Rogers killed in Wright biplane at Long Beach, CA.

April 30 — Elbridge Engine Company advertises unassembled parts for complete biplane to purchasers of one of their aeroplane motors at $875.

May 30 — Wilbur Wright dies at age of 45 years. Orville succeeds his brother as President of Wright Company.

June 1 — Lt Henry H Arnold, piloting a Burgess-Wright biplane, makes Army altitude record of 6,450 ft.

June 7-8 — First machine gun mounted on an aeroplane is tested by Capt Charles Chandler.

July — Navy buys four aeroplanes.

July 1 — Harriet Quimby, first woman in America to receive aviator's license, and William A P Willard are killed at Boston Aviation Meet when their monoplane takes nose dive.

July 31 — Lt T G Ellyson, in a Curtiss AH-3, attempts first launching of an aeroplane by catapult from deck of battleship.

August — Numerous orders for American engines and aeroplanes received from Russia, Roumania, and Mexico.

August 8 — Army receives its first tractor aeroplane, a Burgess powered with a 70-hp Renault motor.

August 20 — Lincoln Beachey sets new world's altitude record of 11,642 ft at Chicago.

August 24 — $100,000 appropriation by Congress for Army Air Operations for Fiscal Year of 1913.

October — A Leo Stevens designs the "life-pack" parachute.

October 2 — Glenn L. Martin is awarded Expert Aviator's Certificate No 2 by Aero Club of America.

Fall — Representatives from Japan are sent to America for courses in flying, aeroplane design, and construction at the Curtiss School at Hammondsport.

The Glenn L Martin Company is incorporated under California laws.

Thomas Bros move to Bath, NY, and set up Thomas Bros Airplane Company and the Thomas School of Aviation.

Lawrence D. Bell Joins The Glenn L Martin Company in Los Angeles.

At the end of this year the US Army has twelve aeroplanes and six officers holding pilot's licenses.

At this time, the Navy has five aeroplanes, three of which are Curtiss, and two are Wright.

Other well-known aviators killed in crashes this year are: Captain Bayo; Mrs. Julia Clark; Peter Glasser; Lieutenant Welsh; Lieutenant Hazelhurst; Fred Southard; Turner; and Ray Wheeler.

Collier Trophy for 1912 awarded to Glenn H Curtiss for development of the flying boat.

Among the new companies entering the aeroplane-development field this year are: Aerial Exhibition Co; Aero Exhibition Co; Aero-Marine Equipment Co; Akron Aviation Co; American Hydro-aeroplane Co; Bellanca Aeroplane Co; Benoist Aircraft Co; Blondin "Safety" Aeroplane Co; Crumley Multiplane Co; Dayton Paranoplane Co; Donald Aeroplane Co; Dorian Aeroplane Co; Eagle Aerial Mfg Co; Empire Aerial Navigation Co; Experimental Workshop Co; Fowler-Mars Co; General Aviation Co; Gressier Aviation Co; Hoover-Conrow Aeroplane Co; Hydroaerocraft Corp; Imperial Aero Service; Kingston Aerial Co; Kyle-Smith Aeroplane Co; Glenn L Martin Co; Montana Aeroplane & Exhibition Co; New Haven Aero Co; Patton Aeroplane Co; Peekskill Hydroaeroplane Co; P A Peterson Aerial Transportation & Defense Co; Petosky Aeroplane Co; Prowse Aeroplane Co; Reiflin Headless Aeroplane Co; Richardson Paranoplane Co; Rudolph Aeroplane Co; Shreveport Aeroplane Co; Thaden's Safety Aeroplane Co; Thomas Bros Aeroplane Co; Thompson-Van Arsdale; United Aviation Co; United States Aircraft Co; Universal Aerial Navigation Co; Venice Captive Aeroplane Co; Wiseman-Peters; and Wyckoff` Safety Aerial Machine Co.
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January 13 — Harry M Jones, in a Burgess biplane, flies cargo of Boston baked beans from Boston to Providence, RI.

February — The New York Aeronautical Supply Company merges with Cordeaux-Etter Manufacturing Company, of Brooklyn.

February — Glenn H Curtiss makes contract with Rodman Wanamaker to design and build a flying boat capable of crossing the Atlantic.

February 5 — Lt J H Towers, USN, makes first attempt at bombing stationary targets from an aeroplane.

March — Congress appropriates $125,000 for Army Aeronautics for the coming year.

May 6 — Langley Field Aerodynamical Laboratory started.

June — Grover Loening, the first person in this country to write a thesis on Aeronautics for his degree from a University, joins the Wright Company as engineer.

June — Jerome C Hunsaker, Assistant Naval Constructor, is detailed to Massachusetts Institute of Technology by Secretary of Navy Daniels, to develop courses in aerodynamics.

June — Glenn L Martin delivers his first plane to the Army, a training plane designated as Model TT.

June — Elmer A Sperry demonstrates his first gyroscopic stabilizer to the Navy.

June 20 — Ens W D Billingsley is thrown out of a Wright hydroplane at an altitude of 1,600 ft, becoming the first Naval aviator to be killed in an airplane accident. Safety belts, not used up to this time, are universally adopted following this accident.

August — The Navy now has four hydro-aeroplanes and three flying boats, with 13 officers qualified for flying.

September 30 — As of this date, the US Army has 17 aeroplanes with 23 officers and 91 enlisted men on aeronautical duty.

October 9 — Franklin D Roosevelt, Acting Secretary of Navy, appoints Capt W I Chambers as Senior Member of a Board to draw plans for the organization of a Naval Aeronautic Service.

November — Glenn L Martin sets an altitude record for pilot with passenger of 9,800 ft.

November — K M Turner develops the "aviaphone" (or "airophone") which makes conversation possible between pilot and passenger during flight.

November 18 — Lincoln Beachey flies his specially-built Curtiss biplane upside down and also executes the first "loop" ever accomplished in the air.

Orville Wright is awarded 1913 Collier Trophy for development and demonstration of his automatic stabilizer.

Companies organized to build aeroplanes this year include: Aerial Yacht Co; Aeroplanes, Motors & Equipment Co, Inc; Ajello Hydro-Aeroplanc Co; American Flying Yacht Mfg Co; "Aquacro" Mfg Co; Atwater Safety Flying Machine Co; Batson Aero Co; Beachey Aviation Co; Boland Aeroplane & Motor Co; Christofferson Aviation Co; Weldon B Cooke Aeroplane Co; Crawford Air Navigation Co; Durham-Christmas Aeroplane Sales & Exhibition Corp; GSA Aviation Co, Inc; Heinrich Aeroplane Co, Inc; Intermountain Aviation Co; Itala Aeroplane Co of Manhattan; Keystone Aircraft Co; Kirkham Aeroplane & Motor Co; Lubin Safety Hydroplane & Aeroplane Co, Inc; National Aeroplane Mfg Co; PAR Airboat Co; Richmond Aeroplane Co; Mathew B Sellers; Shaw Aeroplane Co; Silver Lake Aviation Co; Stinson Aviation Co; Washington Aeroplane Co; and Witteman Bros.

January — A permanent Naval Aeronautical Center, with Lt John H Towers in command, is established at Pensacola, FL. Six Curtiss, one Wright, and two Burgess aeroplanes are assigned to the base.

January 1 — US Weather Bureau begins daily publication of a weather map of the Northern Hemisphere as an aid to aviation.

January 13 — U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals renders final decision in the Wright-Curtiss suit in favor of Wright Co.

January 15 — The Benoist Company, using a Benoist flying boat with Capt Tony Jannus as pilot, starts the first regular scheduled passenger air line between St Petersburg and Tampa, FL.

February 9 — Lt Henry B Post, Army aviator, makes a new American altitude record of 12,120 ft, but is killed when machine collapses within 600 ft of ground.

February 16 — Lt. M Murray, USN, is killed in crash of a Burgess D-1 flying boat.

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March — Aeromarine Plane & Motor Corporation, with Inglis M Uppercu as President, is formed at Keyport, NJ.

April 6 — Glenn L Martin makes new altitude record of 14,200 ft.

April 27 — Congress appropriates $250,000 for Army aviation.

May — Navy buys three Curtiss and one Burgess flying boats.

June 25 — Silas Christofferson flies over the 14,898-ft peak of Mt Whitney, attaining an altitude of 16,000 ft.

July — Rodman Wanamaker's flying boat America, built by Curtiss, undergoes successful trial flights.

July — Elmer A Sperry conducts first tests with an optical-type drift indicator.

July 1 — Navy has nine aeroplanes and 21 engines on hand at this time.

July 2 — Lawrence Sperry wins French $10,000 Safety Prize with his automatic pilot.

July 18 — Aviation Section, Signal Corps, created by Congress Bill; limits strength to 60 officers and 260 men.

August — World War I breaks out in Europe.

September — First Aero Squadron, the first US tactical air unit, organized at San Diego with 16 officers, 77 enlisted men, and eight aeroplanes.

September — British Government recognizes the Wright patents and pays the British Wright Company $75,000 in settlement of a claim for $375,000.

October 8 — Capt H LeR Muller sets new official American altitude record of 16,798 ft.

October 10-November 15 — Victor Carlstrom flies from Chicago to New York in two jumps involving a total flying time of 8 hr, 28.5 min.

November 18 — Elmer A Sperry is presented with the John Scott Legacy Medal and Premium by the Franklin Institute for his invention of the gyroscopic compass.

December — First two-way radio between aeroplane and ground successfully tested at Manila by pilot H A Dargue and Lt O Mauborgne, designer of the set.

December — Thomas Bros Aeroplane Company and the Thomas School of Aviation move to Ithaca, NY,

December 31 — 49 aeroplanes having a value of $789,872 are delivered during this year.

Robert J Collier Trophy for 1914 is awarded to Elmer A Sperry for development of gyroscopic control.

Burgess Company now building pusher biplane seaplanes for the Canadian Government. This is the first American-built fighting plane shipped to Europe for World War I.

Up to this year, only 100 commercial and military aeroplanes have been delivered by manufacturers.

New names to be found among the aeroplane manufacturers this year are: Aeromarine Plane & Motor Corp; Aircraft Co, Inc; Ascension Mfg Co; Blanchard Aerial Works of America; Burgess Co; Circular Monoplane Co; Connecticut Aeroplane Co; Deselektro Co; Great Falls Aviation Co; Grinnell Aeroplane Co; Hacker Safety Hydro-Aeroplane Co; Lorain Hydro & Aerial Co; Omaha Overland Co; Pendhayn Aviation Co; Raygorodsky Aeroplane Co; Safer Aeroplane Co; Schcusselburg's Aeroplane Corp; Sloane-Daniel Co; and Terrell Aeroplane & Exhibition Co, Inc.

January 15 — New official American one-man duration record of 8 hr, 53 min set at San Diego, CA, by Lt Byron G Jones, flying a Martin tractor biplane.

February — Dusenberg Bros open a new plant for building aircraft engines in St Paul, MN.

March 3 — The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics is established by an Act of Congress.

March 3 — Congress passes an appropriation bill of $1,000,000 for Naval Aeronautics.

March 4 — $300,000 appropriation for Army Aeronautics for the Fiscal Year of 1916 passed by Congress.

June 8 — US Patent Office grants patent No 1142754 to Glenn H Curtiss covering the arrangement of a step or ridge incorporated in the hull of flying boats.

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Miss Ruth Law is first woman to execute a loop in an aeroplane successfully.

June 30 — The Navy now has 15 aeroplanes and 18 pilots in active service.

July 18 — Katherine Stinson "loops the loop" in an aeroplane three times consecutively, becoming the first woman to perform this feat.

August — Thomas Aeromotor Firm established as an auxiliary of Thomas Bros Aeroplane Company to produce 135-hp engines for use in the latter company's aeroplanes.

September 1 — Congress, recognizing the importance of aeronautics to the Army, increases the appropriation from the $300,000 of the previous fiscal year to $13,281,666

September 17 — Lt Walter R Taliaferro, of the US Signal Corps' Aviation School, sets a new American endurance record of 9 hr, 48 min.

October — William E Boeing becomes interested in aeronautics and begins flying instruction at Glenn L Martin's School in California.

October — Orville Wright sells his interest in the Wright Company to a group of Eastern capitalists, including William Boyce Thompson and Frank Manville, President of Johns-Manville Company.

November 4 — The Wright Company increases its capital stock from $1,000,000 to $5,000,000. Henry Lockhart, Jr, President of the Simplex Motor Company, a concern acquired by Wright Company, is made head of new organization.

November 6 — Lt Comdr H C Mustin makes first catapult launching from a vessel under way from USS North Carolina in Pensacola Bay.

November 27 — Victor Carlstrom flies from Toronto, Canada, to New York City, 600 miles, in 6 hr, 40 min, in a Curtiss R-2 military biplane.

December — Naval Air Station at Pensacola, FL, now has 17 aeroplanes in commission.

December — LWF Engineering Company organized by Messrs Lowe, Fowler, and Charles Willard to manufacture laminated-wood monocoque fuselages of Mr. Willard's design.

December 12 — An all-steel battle plane, designed by Grover K C Loening and built by Sturtevant Aeroplane Company, is successfully tested.

Robert J Collier Trophy for 1915 awarded to W Starling Burgess for development and demonstration of the Burgess-Dunne hydro-aeroplane.

The General Vehicle Company, Long Island City, contracts to build Gnome engines for the French government; the first radial engines produced in this country.

The first Navy-designed seaplane, designed by Naval Constructor H C Richardson, is built at Washington Navy Yard.

Curtiss Aeroplane Company and the Curtiss Motor Company, of Hammondsport, move to Buffalo, NY.

Other new companies competing in the aeroplane and engine manufacturing field this year are: Aviauto Mfg Co; Bounds Aeroplane Co; Butte Hydro-Aero Co; Chicago Aero Works; Cooper Aircraft Co; Dusenberg Bros; Edwards Common-Sense Aeroplane Co; Laq Aeroplane Co; Peoli Aeroplane Corp; Polyplane Motor & Metal Mfg Co; Russell Aeroplane Co; Simplex Aircraft Co; Sturtevant Aeroplane Co; Thomas Aeromotor Co; and Witteman Aircraft Co.

January 13 — The Curtiss Aeroplane & Motor Corporation is incorporated at Buffalo to take over the Curtiss Aeroplane Company and the Curtiss Motor Company.

February — Curtiss Aeroplane & Motor Corporation acquires the stock of the Burgess Company of Marblehead, MA. The corporation also controls Curtiss Aeroplane & Motors, Ltd, of Canada and the Curtiss Exhibition Company, which operates the flying fields and schools at Buffalo, Hammondsport, Miami, San Diego, and Newport News.

February 12 — US Post Office Department issues its first air-mail advertisement inviting bids for carrying the mails by aeroplane in Massachusetts and in Alaska.

March 15 — First Aero Squadron, under command of Capt B D Foulois, begins operations at Columbus, NM, with the Punitive Expedition under Pershing.

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March 31 — $500,000 allocated to Aviation Section under 1916-1917 Emergency Act.

April 2 — Lt R C Saufley, USN, establishes a Naval altitude record of 16,072 ft in a Curtiss hydro-aeroplane.

April 30 — World altitude record broken at Newport News by Victor Carlstrom in a twin-engined JN Curtiss when he reaches 16,500 ft.

May 20 — Lt Col George O Squire appointed chief officer US Signal Corps, in charge of aviation.

May 24 — J V Rockwell, Civil Engineer, is killed in crash of the Navy's AH-14 at Pensacola.

June — The New York Flying Yacht Club, with Vincent Astor, Harry Payne Whitney, and Harold F McCormick as principal members, is organized in New York.

June 1 — The Wright Company acquires Hempstead Plains for use as an aerodrome and aviation center.

June 9 — Lt R C Saufley killed on endurance flight in an AH-9 over Santa Rosa Island.

June 29 — William E Boeing builds and test-flies his first aeroplane, the B&W trainer.

July — Naval design now shifts to the tractor type of aeroplane, as a result of recent series of fatal accidents. In all, 60 tractor hydro-aeroplanes of Thomas, Martin, Burgess, and Sturtevant design are purchased this year.

July 15 — Pacific Aero Products Company organized by William E Boeing to further develop the B&W biplane.

Summer — LWF Engineering Company moves from Long Island City to College Point, LI.

August — Aviation magazine, founded by Major Lester D Gardner, first published.

August 22 — President Wilson signs Navy Appropriation Bill which includes $3,500,000 for aeronautics for the Navy.

August 29 — US Army Appropriations approved this date include $14,281,766 to the Signal Corps for military aeronautics.

September — Wright-Martin Aircraft Corporation formed to take over all stock of the Wright Company, The Glenn L Martin Company, Simplex Automobile Company, Wright Flying Field, and the General Aeronautic Company of America, Inc.

September — Wright-Martin Aircraft Corporation contracts with French company to manufacture the Hispano-Suiza engine in this country.

September 2 — Aeroplanes in flight communicate with each other directly by radio for the first time.

November — Navy places orders with Curtiss Aeroplane & Motors Corporation for 30 N-9 training planes.

November 20 — Miss Ruth B Law, flying a Curtiss biplane, breaks all world's records for women pilots by flying from Chicago to New York in 8 hr, 55 min, and 35 sec.

Robert Collier Trophy for 1916 awarded to Elmer A Sperry for development and demonstration of the Sperry drift indicator.

Other new companies entering the aeroplane manufacturing field this year include: American Aircraft Co; American Aviation Co; Andermat Aeroplane Co; Atwater Aeronautic Co; Auto Ordnance Corp; Automobile Crankshaft Co, Inc; Baysdorfer- Kuhl Aeroplane Co; C-E Aeroplane Works; California Aeroplane & Motor Co; Carter Bros. Aeroplane Co; Clyde B Cessna; Condor Aero Co; Connecticut Aircraft Co; Des Moines Aeroplane & Motor Co; Eastern Aeroplane Co; Empire State Aircraft Corp; Federal Aircraft & Motor Corp; GA Aeronautic Co, Inc; General Aeronautic Co; General Aeroplane Co; Hamilton Mfg Co; International Aircraft Co; Interocean Aeroplane Co; Moisant-Peloggio Corp; National Aircraft Corp; New York Aero Construction Co; Richardson Aeroplane Corp; Shaw Aeroplane Co; Shinnecock Aeroplane Co; Standard Aero Corp; Stephens Aeroplane Co; Tesla Co; Utah Aircraft Corp; and Williams Aeroplane Co.

January 19 — Gallaudet Aircraft Corporation, with E F Gallaudet as Chairman of the Board, is organized in New York.

January 24 — Aeronautical manufacturers meet in New York to discuss organization of an Aircraft Manufacturers Association.

January 31 — Thomas-Morse Aircraft Corporation organized through a merger of the Thomas Bros Aeroplane Company and the Morse Chain Company.

February 8-15 — Aeronautical Exposition held in Grand Central Palace, New York, displays products of 13 airplane, 13 engine manufacturers, and other miscellaneous exhibitors.

February 13 — Aircraft Manufacturers Association, with Frank H Russell as President, is formed. Charter members are: Aeromarine Plane & Motor Company; The Burgess Company; Curtiss Aeroplane & Motor Corporation; LWF. Engineering Company; Standard Aircraft Corporation; Sturtevant Aeroplane Company; Thomas-Morse Aircraft Corporation; and the Wright-Martin Aircraft Corporation.

March — Katherine Stinson sets a. new American cross-country duration record with a flight from San Diego to San Francisco of 9 hr and 10 min.

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April 6 — US declares war on Germany.

April 6 — As of this date, the Aviation Section of the Signal Corps consists of 35 pilots, 1,987 enlisted men, and 55 training airplanes. The Navy has 38 officer-pilots, 163 men, and 54 airplanes.

April 9 — Dayton Wright Airplane Company is incorporated at Dayton, OH, with Col H E Talbott as Chairman of the Board; H E Talbott, Jr, President; C F Kettering, Vice- President; and Orville Wright as Consulting Engineer.

April 20 — Navy lets initial contracts for airplanes to the following companies: Curtiss, for 64 N-9s, 76 R-6s, and 10 F boats; Burgess Company, for 42 training planes; Boeing Company, for 50 training planes; Aeromarine, for 200 training planes. A contract to Curtiss for 122 additional R-6s is let shortly afterwards.

April 30 — Pacific Aero Products Company changes name to Boeing Airplane Company, with William E Boeing as President.

April — The Dayton Wright Airplane Company, Fisher Body Corporation, and Wright-Martin Company of California become members of Aircraft Manufacturers Association.

May 12 — American altitude record is broken by Capt W A Robertson, Jr, military aviator, at the North Island Flying School when he reaches a height of 17,230 ft.

May 12 — $8,300,000 appropriated for Army Aeronautics.

May 24 — Premier of France asks the US to send 4,500 planes with personnel and supplies for the 1918 campaign, with more to follow.

May — Management of the Wright-Martin Aircraft Company is turned over to George W Goethals & Company, Inc, with George H Houston as President.

June — Aircraft Production Board organized; Howard A Coffin, Chairman.

June 5 — First organized unit of US Naval aviators lands at Bordeaux, France, comprised of 6 officers and 63 enlisted men under command of Lt Kenneth Whiting.

June 15 — $32,000,000 allocated to Signal Corps for Air Operations under Emergency Act.

July 24 — $640,000,000 appropriated by Congress for air. Aviation Section authorized to expand to 9,989 officers and 87,083 enlisted men.

July 24 — Manufacturers Aircraft Association formed to handle the business of cross-licensing patents between all aircraft manufacturers. Samuel S Bradley appointed General Manager.

August 10 — Ground broken for building Naval Aircraft Factory at Philadelphia.

August 21 — LWF Engineering Company's Model F, the first airplane embodying the Liberty engine, is successfully flown.

August 25 — Acting Secretary of the Navy Franklin D Roosevelt authorizes development of NC flying boats capable of flying the Atlantic.

September 19 — A new American hydroaeroplane altitude record for pilot and passenger is established by Caleb Bragg in a Wright-Martin plane at Port Washington, NY.

October — Caleb S Bragg, at Mineola Field, sets new altitude record of 21,500 ft.

October 1 — Congress creates the Aircraft Board.

October 12 — Marine Section of Naval Aviation now consists of 34 officers and 330 enlisted men.

October 15 — Liberty-12 installed in first HS-1 flying boat at Buffalo, NY.

December — Glenn L Martin re-establishes the Glenn L Martin Company in temporary quarters in Cleveland, Ohio, pending construction of a new plant.

December 15 — Lt Comdr W Starling Burgess accepts commission in charge of airplane design for the Bureau of Construction and Repair of US Navy.

North Island, flying field at San Diego used by Glenn H Curtiss for flying experiments in 1910; is finally acquired by the US Government for a Navy air station through a condemnation bill passed by Congress. Final purchase price is $6,098,333.33.

McCook Field, Dayton, OH, established as Air Service Experimental Base.

Benoist, President of Benoist Aeroplane Company, is killed in a tramcar accident.

Gen William Mitchell is first US Army Air Service officer to fly over enemy lines in World War.

First US aviator shot down in World War is H Clyde Balsley.

Alan F Winslow is first U.S. Army aviator to bring down an enemy plane in the war.

The Robert J. Collier Trophy is not awarded this year because of the war.

2,148 airplanes are accepted from manufacturers this year.

A number of new companies are organized this year to manufacture aircraft and components for war. Among these are: American Aircraft Co; Atlantic Aircraft Co; Bates Airplane Co; Dayton Wright Airplane Co; Engel Aircraft Co; General Airplane Co; Kyle-Smith Aircraft Co; Lanzius Aircraft Corp.; Lawrence Lewis Airplane Co; Lawson Aircraft Corp; Lincoln Motor Co; Loening Aeronautical Engineering Corp; New York Aero Construction Co; S S Pierce Co; St Louis Aircraft Corp; Springfield Aircraft Corp; Standard Aircraft Corp; United Eastern Airplane Co; and Vought, Lewis & Vought Co.
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February — The Glenn L Martin Company starts building new plant at 16800 St Clair Street, Cleveland, Ohio. Laurence D Bell becomes Factory Manager; Donald W Douglas, Chief Engineer; and J J Kindelberger secures a position as draftsman.

February 20 — Secretary of War Baker announces that the first shipment of American battle planes, equipped with Liberty motors, is shipped to Europe 5 months ahead of schedule.

May 11 — First American-made airplane received by AEF.

May 15 — Regular air-mail service between Washington, DC, and New York City inaugurated; operated by the Army.

May 20 — Army Aeronautics is severed from Signal Corps and two Air Departments created: Bureau of Military Aeronautics and Bureau of Aircraft Production.

July — $124,304,758 appropriated for Army Aviation.

July — Standard Aircraft Corporation is called upon to build Italian-designed Caproni and the English-designed Handley-Page bombers.

August 17 — The Model MB-1 Army bomber, designed and built by the Glenn L Martin Company, makes its first flight.

September 18 — Major R W Schroeder, US Army, establishes world altitude record of 28,899 ft at Dayton, OH.

October 4 — The first NC-1 flying boat is successfully tested and flown.

October 27 — Air passenger service between Key West, FL, and Havana, Cuba, is inaugurated by Aeromarine Company.

November 4 — $60,000,000 appropriated for the Army Air Service.

November 11 — Armistice is signed.

November 11 — As of this date, the Army Air Service has a total of 195,024 personnel, of which 20,568 are officers and 174,456 are enlisted men. The AEF has 3,538 airplanes on hand. 4,865 additional planes are in service in the USA, with more coming off the production lines rapidly.

November 11 — Naval Aviation now consists of 2,853 officers and 32,873 men. In addition, there are 282 officers and 2,180 men in Marine Corps Aviation. With 3,881 Student Officers undergoing training, a total of 42,051 officers and men are now actively serving in Naval Aviation.

November 11 — 2,127 airplanes, of which 1,172 are flying boats, 695 are seaplanes, and 240 are landplanes, are in Naval Aviation Service at this time.

December 1 — An Aviation Section in the New York Police Department is formed.

December 18 — Initial trip of the regular aerial mail service between New York, Cleveland, and Chicago is started from Belmont Park, LI, with a Liberty-motored de Havilland airplane flown by Leon D Smith.

Total cost of "Aviation War," including airplanes, parts, and flying equipment to train and supply our Air Service, 1917-1918, is $598,090,781.

In the Zone of Advance, the American Army receives a total of 2,698 airplanes, of which 668 are American-made.

Air Service pilots shoot down 755 officially confirmed enemy airplanes and 71 balloons. Our losses are 357 airplanes and 43 balloons.

Capt Edward V Rickenbacker, America's "Ace of Aces," is credited with 21 enemy airplane and 4 balloon victories.

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January 18 — Major R W Schroeder establishes monoplane altitude record of 19,500 ft.

January 23 — Restrictions on civilian flying, imposed by President Wilson's Proclamation of February 28th, last year, are removed.

February 19 — Bureau of Ordnance continues experimental work started by the Sperry Gyroscope Company on an automatic flying machine to be used in carrying large explosive charges.

February 21 — Thomas-Morse Scout, equipped with 300-hp Hispano-Suiza motor, sets a new American speed record of 164 mph at Ithaca, NY.

February 26 — President Wilson approves and submits to House of Representatives recommendations of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics for legislation placing licensing and regulation of aerial navigation in charge of the Department of Commerce.

March 1-15 — First Annual Aeronautical Exposition held at Madison Square Garden and the 69th Regiment Armory in New York City.

March 3 — William E Boeing, with Edward Hubbard as passenger, carries the first air mail from Canada to the US.

March 7 — Major Reuben F Fleet and Capt Earl F White establish a new record for long-distance flight in the US by flying from Dayton, OH, to Hazelhurst Field, a distance of 664 miles in 4 hr and 33 min.

March 19 — The Aircraft Board is abolished by Presidential Executive Order.

April 19 — Capt Earl F White, flying a DH-4 Army biplane, makes first nonstop flight between Chicago and New York City.

April 26 — The first Martin Model MB-1 twin-engined bomber is delivered by the Army to the Smithsonian Institution at Washington.

April 26 — A world duration record of 20 hr and 19 min is set by Naval crew of four men flying a Navy F-5-L boat.

April 28 — Leslie Irvin, using a parachute designed by Floyd Smith, makes the first jump from airplane with free-type back-pack parachute at McCook Field, Dayton, OH.

May 3 — The First Municipal Airport in the US is dedicated at Atlantic City, NJ.

May 6 — The Navy's flying boats NC-1, NC-3, and NC-4 take off from Rockaway Beach in an attempt to fly the Atlantic.

May 15 — An airmail route between Chicago and Cleveland is opened by the Post Office Department.

May 16 — NC-1, NC-3, and NC-4 leave Trepassey Bay, Newfoundland, on the second leg of transatlantic flight.

May 17 — NC-4 arrives at Horta, Azores Island. NC-1 lands at sea and sinks after crew is picked up by Greek steamer. NC-3 is badly damaged in landing off Horta.

May 27 — NC-4 arrives at Lisbon.

May 31— NC-4 arrives at Plymouth, England, completing the first American transatlantic flight.

July — Post Office Department establishes airmail route between Cleveland and New York.

July 11— $25,000,000 appropriated for Air Service for Fiscal Year of 1920.

July 24-November 9 — Lt Col R L Hartz and Lt E E Harman make a complete "around-the-rim" circuit flight of USA, covering 9,823 miles, in a Martin bomber.

July 25 — Roland Rohlfs, test pilot for the Curtiss Engineering Corporation, reaches an altitude of 30,100 ft.

July 27 — Curtiss Aeroplane & Motor Corporation takes over the Atlantic City Airport.

August 14 — First bag of mail delivered by an airplane to a ship at sea.

August 29 — Lts A S Roberts, C H Burgess, and N L Elliott fly a three-plane formation under all of the bridges spanning the East River at New York City.

September 13 — Roland Rohlfs, in a Curtiss Wasp, flies to a height of 34,200 ft over Roosevelt Field, Mineola, LI.

September 15 — The round trip New York-Toronto Race is won by Major R W Schroeder, US Army.

September 18 — A new altitude record of 34,910 ft is established by Roland Rohlfs, flying the Curtiss Wasp.

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September — Navy Department announces that all American battleships of a first and second class are to be equipped with a seaplane, to be launched by catapult.

October 4 — Official world two-man altitude record of 31,821 ft is established by Major R W Schroeder and Lt G E Elfrey at Dayton, OH.

October 24 — The Curtiss Eagle, an eight-passenger three-motored aerial liner, makes its first public flight from Garden City, LI, to Washington, DC, and return.

October 27 — Three Aeromarine flying boats fly from Key West, FL, to Cuba, inaugurating a regular passenger service between these points.

October 30 — A reversible propeller, permitting airplanes to land and be brought to a stop within 50 ft, is tested at McCook Field, Dayton, OH.

December 8 — The Aeronautical Engineering Society is organized at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

December 19-24 — The Lawrance Company, in collaboration with the Bureau of Steam Engineering, develops a three-cylinder air-cooled radial engine for aircraft.

December 31 — Notable technical achievements of this year, as reviewed by McCook Field, include: development of leakproof tanks; the free parachute back-pack; reversible- and variable-pitch propellers; a syphon gasoline pump; fins and floats for emergency water landings; and the turbo-compressor, or supercharger, developed by Dr Sanford A Moss of the General Electric Company.

780 airplanes, having a value of $14,400,000, are manufactured this year.

44 American airplanes, valued at $225,300, are exported.

$3,249,226 worth of airplane parts are exported.


Aeromarine Plane & Motors Co builds airplanes for Navy; develops two new types of aircraft engines; and builds and exhibits their first cabin flying boat sold for commercial purposes.

Boeing Airplane Co. develops the B-1 flying boat which is used in the International Airmail Service between Seattle and Vancouver, BC.

Burgess Co plant (of Curtiss Aeroplane & Motor Co.) closes down. Starling Burgess retires from company.

Cantilever Aero Co. exhibits Christmas Bullet, their first strutless airplane, at Madison Square Garden. (See illus)

Sid Chaplain Aircraft Co establishes daily passenger service between Los Angeles and Catalina Island.

Curtiss Aeroplane & Motor Corp, operating nine plants at close of war, establishes Sales Department under John P Davies, with dealers and distributors throughout the US, Europe, Japan, and the Philippines, to sell their Seagull flying boats and Oriole biplanes.

Dayton Wright Airplane Co develops the Cabin Cruiser and Aerial Coupe for commercial market.

Horace Keane Aeroplanes, Inc, successors to the defunct Aircraft Engineering Corp, builds the Ace K-1 tractor biplane designed by Alexander Klemin.

LWF Engineering Co, Inc, remodels twin-engined DH-4 biplanes for airmail purposes on contract from Post Office Department.

The Lawson Co, of Milwaukee, designs a twin-engined airplane to use as a transport between New York and Chicago.

The Glenn L Martin Co is awarded contracts for the design and construction of eight Model NT torpedo planes and two Model NBT bomber-torpedo planes. Also receives contract from Post Office Department to build airmail planes.

J V Martin airplane factory, Elyria, OH, develops a Seven-Ton twin-engined bomber.

Maryland Pressed Steel Co. builds a small sport airplane designed by Joseph Bellanca.

Packard Motor Car Co engaged principally in experimental work on their aircraft engines during this year.

"Eddie" Stinson, former Army Air Service instructor and test pilot for Curtiss, forms his own company, Stinson Airplane Syndicate, to develop and produce a cabin airplane.

Stout Engineering Laboratories, Inc, Detroit, develops a three-seater cantilever monoplane designed by William B Stout.

Sturtevant Aeroplane Co. moves offices from Jamaica Plain to Framingham, MA, continuing improvements and developments of their aircraft engines.

Thomas-Morse Aircraft Corp. is awarded contract by Post Office Department to build four twin-engined airplanes.

United Aircraft Engineering Corp, New York City, incorporated this year.

West Virginia Aircraft Co confines its activities to experimental development work since the Armistice. Operating flying schools at Daytona and Princeton.

Witteman-Lewis Aircraft Corp, Teterboro, NJ, acquires property for airfield and construction of a factory in which to manufacture airplanes.

Wright Aeronautical Corp. takes over certain assets and liabilities of the now-dissolved Wright-Martin Aircraft Corp., including the Wright patents and the Hispano-Suiza license for the USA. New company sells New Brunswick plant and purchases site in Newark for building factory.

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January — Raymond Orteig, of Paris, France, offers $25,000 through the Aero Club of America to the pilot making the first nonstop flight from New York to Paris.

February 4 — Consignment of Curtiss HS-2Ls and H-16s, and several Aeromarine and Boeing flying boats and parts worth $500,000, is shipped to aerial transport company in China.

February 5 — Navy pushes project of developing radio loops for seaplane navigational purposes.

February 18 — Navy carries out extensive tests in an effort to develop a steam boiler power plant for use in aircraft.

February 27 — Major R W Schroeder, in a Liberty-powered LePere, sets a new world altitude record of 33,000 ft (according to US Bureau of Standards), or 38,180 ft by 1919 FAI standards. (See illus p 21)

February 28 — Lawrance Aeronautical Engine Corporation receives Navy contract for construction of five nine-cylinder radial air-cooled engines designated as Model J-1 (forerunner of the famous Wright Whirlwind series).

April — Army makes initial tests of gyroscopic compass.

April 27 — First warrant in US for reckless aerial driving is issued in Los Angeles against Omer Locklear.

April 29 — Hearings are held before the House Naval Committee on the Hick's Bill for the establishment of a Bureau of Aeronautics in the Navy Department.

May 24 — A clause in the Army Appropriation Bill which would turn all Naval Air Stations over to the Army is eliminated after a hot debate lasting 2 hours.

June 4 — Army Reorganization Bill, creating an Air Service in the Army with 1,516 officers and 16,000 enlisted men, is approved.

June 5 — $33,435,000 appropriated for the Army Air Service; Act limits Air Service to land bases.

June 21 — Navy makes arrangements to install a Martin retractable landing gear on its VE-7 Vought airplane.

July 6 — An F-5-L Navy seaplane is flown from Hampton Roads to the USS Ohio at sea by means of a radio compass.

July 13 — Comdr J C Hunsaker, USN, is elected Honorary Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society of England, marking the first time in the history of this society that this distinction is conferred on one not a British subject.

July 15-August 24 — Four US Army fliers, led by Capt St Clair Streett, fly from New York to Nome, Alaska, and return.

August 2 — Omer Locklear, aerial acrobat, is killed in night flight at Los Angeles.

August 15 — Laura Bromwell breaks world's "loop-the-loop" record for women with an official total of 87 loops.

August 30 — Lt Arthur G Hamilton makes record parachute jump of 20,900 ft at Carlstrom Field, Arcadia, FL.

September 8 — Transcontinental airmail service from New York to San Francisco started.

October — Donald W Douglas, formerly Chief Engineer of The Glenn L Martin Company, organizes the Davis-Douglas Company to build the Cloudster airplane, designed to fly nonstop across the continent.

October 31 — Toledo, Ohio, is bombarded by airplanes carrying socialistic literature in behalf of Eugene V Debs.

November 1 — US Army Air Service makes test flights of the Sperry Messenger, the smallest military airplane yet developed.

November 25 — First airplane race for the Pulitzer Trophy held at Mitchel Field, Garden City, LI, is won by Lt C C Mosley, piloting the Verville-Packard racer at an average speed of 178 mph.

December 4 — James Means, pioneer aviation writer and publisher, dies at his home in Boston.

New aircraft engines brought out this year include the 180- and 300-hp engines developed by Wright; the new Aeromarine 120 and 180; the Packard 300- and 600-hp types; and the Lawrance 60- and 200-hp air-cooled engines.


Curtiss Aeroplane & Motor Corp undergoes reorganization, with C M Keyes assuming presidency of company upon withdrawal of the Willys Motor Car interests. Glenn H Curtiss becomes reactive as a member of the Board of Directors and Chief of Engineering.

Davis-Douglas Co is organized by Donald W Douglas.

Dayton Wright Airplane Co. is taken over by General Motors Corp.

Durant Aircraft Corp., Oakland, CA, builds a redesigned version of the well-known training airplane of the defunct Standard Aircraft Corp.

LWF Engineering Co, Inc, develops the Model H Giant, a three-motored tractor biplane bomber for the Army Air Service.

The Glenn L Martin Co delivers eight Model NT torpedo planes to Army; also awarded a contract for the design and construction of 20 two-motor bombers, designated as the MB-2.

Ordnance Engineering Corp (Orenco) builds a four-passenger airplane known as the Tourister.

Packard Motor Car Co completes three successful types of airplanes during the year; also develops a 600-hp V-type engine for the Government.

Robertson Aircraft Corp is organized at St. Louis, MO.

Thomas-Morse Aircraft Corp. delivers MB-3 fighters and continues development work on MB-4 twin-engined mail carrier and S-6 trainer.

Otto W Timm designs the Pacific Hawk, a six-place, two-engined biplane.

Chance M Vought delivers the first VE-7 airplane to the Navy.

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January — Post Office Department now operating daily airmail routes over a distance of 3,460 miles.

January 1 — Wright Aeronautical Corporation changes the name of the improved American-Hispano motor to the Wright Engine.

January 7 — Aeromarine Engineering & Sales Company is made distributing agent for $4,000,000 worth of US Navy surplus aircraft and engines.

January 10 — Engineering Division, McCook Field, Dayton, OH, designs and tests a 700-hp engine having 18 cylinders arranged in three banks of six each.

January 24 — Myron T Herrick, of Cleveland, OH, elected President of the Aero Club of America.

March 23 — Lt Arthur G Hamilton, US Air Service, makes record parachute jump from 23,000 ft at Rantoul, IL.

March 25 — Lt W D Coney, US Air Service, in attempting a return transcontinental flight from Jacksonville, FL, to San Diego, CA, sustains injuries that result in his death when forced down by motor trouble.

April 12 — President Harding, in his address to Congress, recommends the establishment of a Bureau of Aviation within the Commerce Department.

May 12 — The Loening PW-2 Pursuit plane, and the G Elias FAL training airplane are tested by Air Service at McCook Field.

May 31 — New York-Washington airmail service is discontinued because of lack of appropriations.

June 11 — Lt R C Moffat, US Air Service, wins Hamilton Memorial Trophy Race; Hartford, CT, to Springfield, MA.

June 30 — $19,200,000 appropriated for Air Service for Fiscal Year 1922. Air strength at this time includes 2,820 airplanes.

July — As outgrowth of charges made by Brig Gen William Mitchell before House Appropriation Committee in January, Army and Navy undertake aerial bombardment of captured German vessels in Chesapeake Bay.

July — Sinking of a captured German submarine, a destroyer, a light cruiser, and the dreadnaught Ostfriesland, by bombs from Army airplane, proves vulnerability of Naval craft to airplane attack.

July — Donald W Douglas organizes the Douglas Company in Los Angeles, CA.

August 4 — 5,000 catalpa trees near Troy, OH, are successfully sprayed from an airplane in 15 min.

September 1 — President authorizes formation of Navy Bureau of Aeronautics; Rear Adm W A Moffett appointed Chief.

September 28 — Lt J A Macready breaks world altitude record in a Packard-LePere fighter plane by reaching 34,509 ft.

October — Magazine Aero Digest first published.

October 16 — Aero Club of America holds meet at Curtiss Field, Garden City, LI.

November 3 — Bert Acosta, in a Curtiss-Navy racer, wins Pulitzer Trophy Race at Omaha, NE, and sets a new world's record for speed on a closed course of 176.7 mph.

November 4 — "Casey" Jones, flying a Curtiss Oriole, wins the 90-mile free-for-all race at Omaha, NE.

November 22 — Bert Acosta, in a Curtiss-Navy racer, attains speed of 197.8 mph at Curtiss Field, Garden City, LI.

December 30 — "Eddie" Stinson and Lloyd Bertaud, in a JL-6 Larsen monoplane, remain aloft at Roosevelt Field, LI, for 26 hr, 19 min, 35 sec, to set a new endurance record.

December 31 — Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce incorporated under the laws of the State of New York. Grover C Loening elected President.

December 31 — It is estimated that 1,200 commercial aircraft are now in operation in the US

December 31 — As of the close of this year, there are 146 airfields for heavier-than-air craft operating in the USA. 125 commercial companies, located in 34 states, are listed as operating passenger and airplane services.

Robert Collier Trophy for 1921 awarded to Grover C Loening for development and demonstration of his aerial yacht.

Bulk of aircraft developed this year are for military services and include: the Dayton Wright US XBIA; Boeing GAX; Thomas-Morse MB-6 and MB-7; and Loening's single-seater monoplane. Developed for the Navy are the Curtiss torpedo dropper; Douglas torpedo dropper; and the Elias EM Model.

48 airplanes, having a value of $5314,940, and $156,608 worth of airplane parts are exported from the US this year.


Aerial Transport Corp, New York City, is building an Aerial Transport express tractor biplane, known as Model VBL-1, of three-ply construction.

Baco (Bethlehem Aircraft Corp) organized at Bethlehem, PA, to build a two-place commercial tractor biplane, called the Skylark.

Barnhart Aircraft, Inc, organized at Pasadena, CA, to build the Wampus Cat, a twin-engined passenger transport.

Boeing Co is awarded contract by US Air Service to build 200 pursuit planes.

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G Elias & Bro, Buffalo, NY, is designing several types of commercial airplanes, one of which is a twin-engined passenger transport.

Friesl Aircraft Corp established at Marysville, CA, to build the Falcon transport biplane.

Gallaudet Aircraft Corp completes development of a multiple engine drive and geared propeller system.

Huff-Daland, Inc, Ogdensburg, NY, produces the Petrel, Early Bird, and Bridget.

Jacuzzi Bros, Inc, San Pablo, CA, build a commercial cabin transport monoplane. Ship breaks in air during tests killing its crew, including several of the Jacuzzi brothers.

J L Aircraft Corp, New York City, produces the JL-6 and JL-12 monoplanes.

E M Laird, Chicago, IL, produces the Swallow biplane.

Lawrance Aeronautical Engine Corp receives contract from US Navy for 15 J-1 engines.

Loening Aeronautical Engineering Corp., New York City, is at present engaged in experimental research work for the Army.

Longren Aircraft Corp. develops the AK training biplane; fuselage consists of hard vulcanized fiber molded to a streamlined form and reinforced internally by two ash longerons and a number of laminated ash ribs.

Maryland Pressed Steel Corp ceases its airplane-building activities and Joseph Bellanca transfers his services to the Omaha Aircraft Corp.

Nebraska Aircraft Corp, Lincoln, NE, develops the Lincoln Cruiser tractor biplane.

Netherlands Aircraft Corp, importers of Fokker airplanes, decides to organize a factory for building planes of Anthony Fokker's design in this country.

Omaha Aircraft Corp is formed at Omaha, NE, to build airplanes designed by Joseph Bellanca.

Orenco (Ordnance Engineering Corp) is building the Model E-2 armored infantry liaison tractor biplane at Baldwin, LI.

Pacific Airplane & Supply Co, Los Angeles, is building the Hawk twin-tractor biplane and the Model C-1 racing mono.

Remington-Burnelli Aircraft Corp produces a 27-passenger twin-tractor biplane known as the RB-1 Airmailer.

Alexander P deSeversky, a Russian military flier, comes to America and with the aid of "Billy" Mitchell sells his bombsight to the US Government for $50,000.

Stout Engineering Laboratories are presently working on a cantilever-type monoplane for Naval torpedo carrying.

Waterman Aircraft Mfg Co, Venice, CA, is building a tractor biplane and a racing monoplane, designed by W D Waterman.


January 1 — Underwriter's Laboratories, at Chicago, begin registration of American aircraft as a private enterprise for benefit of insurance companies.

March 20 — USS Langley commissioned as airplane carrier at Norfolk, VA.

May 7 — Schoen Field, named in honor of Lt Carl Schoen, is dedicated at Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indianapolis.

May 23 — Three DH-4B airplanes from Mitchel Field, LI, bomb New York with paper bombs advertising Citizens' Military Training Camps.

May 24 — Jumping from a ship piloted by Lt James H Doolittle, Master Sgt Chester W Kolinsky, of the 90th Squadron at Kelly Field, makes a successful parachute jump from 10,000 ft using a regular training pack parachute.

May 29 — Navy orders 25 more J-1 engines from Lawrance Aeronautical Corporation.

June 12 — Capt A W Stevens, US Air Service, makes record parachute jump from 24,206 ft from a supercharged Martin bomber over McCook Field.

June 16 — Henry Berliner, of Washington, DC, makes vertical flight in a helicopter designed by his father, Emil Berliner. (See illus)

June 30 —$12,895,000 appropriated for Air Service for Fiscal Year 1923.

June 30 — Air Service strength at this time consists of 958 officers; 1,681 serviceable airplanes; 55 free balloons; 448 observation balloons; and 13 nonrigid airships.

July —Navy acquires 310 aircraft during this Fiscal Year.

July 1 — Naval aviation on this date consists of 595 officers and 4,631 men. Of these, 314 are Naval aviators and 61 are students.

July 1 — During past year, 49,184 flights are made by Naval aviators with but 14 fatalities.

July 1 — According to the Postmaster General's report, the Air Mail Service now has 70 planes in good flying condition.

July 14 — Aeromarine Airways, Inc, opens Great Lakes Division, operating eleven-passenger Aeromarine Cruisers between Cleveland and Detroit.

July 16 — Berliner helicopter rises 12 ft and hovers successfully for Army officials at College Park, MD. (See illus)

August 15 — A delivery of a Ford automobile from Detroit to Cleveland by air is made in the Aeromarine flying boat Buckeye.

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August 21 — Lawrence Sperry drops landing wheels from his plane in flight and successfully lands with a skid device in experiments carried out at Farmingdale, LI.

September 5 — Lt James H. Doolittle, US Air Service, breaks all records for flight across the continent from Jacksonville, FL, to San Diego, CA, in 21 hr, 20 min actual flying time.

September 14 — LWF Owl, largest airplane so far built for Army Air Service, is given its first trial flight at Mitchel Field, LI. (See illus)

September 26 — Wright Aeronautical Corporation's air-yacht Wilbur Wright is christened at New York by Miss Katherine Wright.

October 6 — Lts Oakley Kelly and A Macready, US Air Service, establish a duration flight record of 35 hr, 18 min, 30 sec, in a Fokker T-2 at San Diego. (See illus p 29)

October 14 — Pulitzer Trophy Race is won by Lt R L Maughan with a speed of 205.8 mph over a 250-kilometer course.

October 18 — A world's speed record of 222.96 mph for 1 kilometer is set by Brig Gen William Mitchell flying in the Curtiss Racer used by Lieutenant Maughan in the Pulitzer Race.

October 26 — Lt. Comdr V C Griffin is the first pilot to fly off of the USS Langley.

December 18 — DeBothezat helicopter, built by the Engineering Division of the Air Service at McCook Field, is successfully test-flown for 1 min, 42 sec by Major F H Bane.

Robert Collier Trophy for 1922 is awarded to the Personnel of the US Air Mail Service for their achievement in completing a year's operation along the different routes from coast to coast without a single fatal accident.

Bureau of Aeronautics increases specification for engine endurance test to 300 hr instead of 50 formerly required.

As a result of conference between Army and Navy heads, it is determined that American manufacturers and designers should be invited to compete in the design and construction of new types of military aircraft, with engineers given a free hand. The only restrictions are that the airplane must be suitable for military work and have a speed of more than 190 mph.

Government Air Mail Service carries 1,512,197 lbs. of mail for a total of 1,570,089 miles of air travel this year.

129 commercial operators, only 17 of whom have been in business for three consecutive years, are reported to be actively engaged in operating aircraft services.

42 airplanes, totaling $157,280; $265,396 worth of parts; and 150 airplane engines having a value of $72,917 are exported from the US this year.

One of the outstanding developments in aircraft design this year is the wing-type radiator developed by Curtiss and used in the Pulitzer prize-winning airplane.

National Aeronautic Association, with Howard E Coffin as President, is formed.


Aerial Engineering Corp. is organized by Messrs Booth and Thurston, former engineers with the Curtiss Co, to build two models of a cantilever monoplane.

Bellanca's CF monoplane, with 90-hp engine, captures 13 first prizes in National and International contests.

Boeing Airplane Co underbids next lowest competitor by $3,000 per plane, receiving Army contract for 200 pursuit airplanes. Company also devises a successful process of arc-welding light steel tubing structure for aircraft framework.

Heath Airplane Co, Chicago, IL, builds an airplane called the Favorite for night advertising flights. Bottom wings of plane are provided with an internal lighting system.

Irwin Aircraft Corp, Sacramento, CA, builds a single-seater sport biplane known as the Model TM Meteorplane.

The Glenn L Martin Co receives contracts from the Navy for the design and construction of the Navy's first all-metal monoplanes and seaplanes.

Nebraska Aircraft Corp is reorganized and taken over by Lincoln-Standard Aircraft Corp.

Ordnance Engineering Corp is taken over by the Baldwin Aircraft Corp, with William F Bennett as President of the new firm.

Rogers Construction Co, Gloucester, NJ., takes up the manufacturing of the sport biplane designed by Charles H Day, formerly Chief Engineer of the defunct Standard Aircraft Corp. and later of the equally defunct Aerial Transportation Corp.

Roos-Bellanca Airplane Co is organized at Omaha, NE, for the purpose of manufacturing and marketing airplanes designed by Prof G Bellanca.

Service Aviation Co ("Sattco"), Wabash, IN, is manufacturing a commercial six-passenger biplane.

S S Swanson, Vermillion, SD, builds a sport biplane designated the SSS-3.

The Thomas-Morse MB-VII monoplane, powered with a 300-hp Hispano-Suiza engine, makes its initial flight at Mitchel Field this year.

Witteman Aircraft Corp, Hasbrouck Heights, NJ, builds the Barling Bomber triplane.

Wright Aeronautical Corp. acquires the Lawrance Aero Engine Corp. Charles L Lawrance, pioneer in the design of air-cooled engines, becomes Vice-President of Wright.

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February 21 — The DeBothezat helicopter is given a series of flight tests at McCook Field, in which it achieves sustained flight at an altitude of 15 ft for 2 min and 45 sec.

March 1 — Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company delivers the TC-1, largest American nonrigid dirigible, to Army Air Service.

March 2 — $12,626,000 appropriated for the Air Service for 1924.

March 29 — Lt L Maitland, US Air Service, makes world maximum speed record of 239.95 mph in Army-Curtiss Racer at McCook Field.

April 20 — Naval Air Station, at Anacostia, investigates, the possibilities of laying a smoke screen from an airplane.

May 2-3 — Lts A Macready and Oakley Kelly, US Air Service, make first nonstop flight across the continent, from New York to San Diego, CA, in 26 hr, 50 min, in Army T-2 Fokker Transport. (See illus p 29)

May 17 — Major Thomas Scott Baldwin, one of America's earliest pioneers in the world of aeronautics, dies at Buffalo, NY, at the age of 69.

June 13 — The first UO-1 seaplane is tested at Naval Aircraft factory by Lt Comdr M A Mitscher and Lt David Rittenhouse.

June 26 — Major Gen M M Patrick qualifies as an airplane pilot, being the first Major General in the US Army to do so.

June 26 — First refueling in midair between two airplanes is made by Lieutenants Smith and Richter at San Diego, CA.

July 10 — Wold-Chamberlain Twin Cities Airport is dedicated at Minneapolis and St Paul, MN.

July 27 — The Navy's first XS-1 submarine scout plane, built by Cox-Klemin Company, is tested at Anacostia.

August 21 — First official experiments in flying the mail by night over the first illuminated airway is undertaken by Post Office Department at Fort Crook.

August 22—The first Barling Bomber, world's largest airplane, undergoes tests at McCook Field.

September — Navy Bureau of Aeronautics orders 550 parachutes from the Army in move to supply all Navy personnel with the latest design emergency equipment.

September 4 — Navy's airship Shenandoah makes first flight from Lakehurst, NJ.

September 5 — Planes of the US Army Air Service bomb the battleships Virginia and New Jersey off Cape Hatteras in series of tests. The New Jersey is sunk in 7.5 min by bombs dropped from 6,000 ft. The Virginia sinks in 4 min.

September 28 — Lt David Rittenhouse, US Navy, wins the Schneider Cup Trophy at Cowes, England, flying a Navy-Curtiss Racer at an average speed of 177.38 mph over the 200 sea-mile distance.

October — Frederick B Patterson, President of National Cash Register Company, Dayton, OH, is elected President of the National Aeronautic Association upon resignation of Howard E Coffin.

October 1-6 — National Air Races, greatest event of its kind in aviation history, held at St Louis, MO.

October 4-6 — 178 Army airplanes fly to St Louis for the Pulitzer Race, covering 177,325 airplane-miles without accident.

October 6 — Pulitzer Trophy Race is won by Lt "Al" Williams, US Navy,flying a Navy-Curtiss Racer at a speed of 243.67 mph.

October 16 — The XS-1 and MS-1 submarine scout planes, built by Cox-Klemin Company and The Glenn L Martin Company, respectively, are sent to Hampton Roads for Navy trial tests.

November 4 — World's speed record is broken by Lt "Al" J Williams in Navy-Curtiss Racer at Mitchel Field, LI. Speed 266.6 mph.

December 3 — President Coolidge approves the Navy's plan to make a North Pole flight during the year of 1924.

December 13 —Lawrence B Sperry, one of American aviation's foremost figures, is drowned while attempting flight over the English Channel.

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December 20 — Lt Comdr H B Grow leaves US Navy Bureau of Aeronautics for Peru to reorganize the naval aviation forces of that country.

Every American speed, distance, and duration record, standing at the end of 1922, with but few exceptions, is bettered by US aviators this year.

Robert Collier Trophy for 1923 is awarded to the pilots and other personnel of the US Air Mail Service for successfully demonstrating to the world the practicability of night flying in commercial transportation.

There are now 162 established air terminals in the USA.

124 fixed-base operators reported active in US this year, with 3,041,611 miles flown in various types of activities.

Department of Agriculture conducts serious experiments with cotton-dusting from an airplane to combat the boll-weevil plague.

J V Martin, of Elyria, OH, brings suit against every aircraft manufacturer in the US who is a member of the Manufacturers Aircraft Association, claiming damages for infringement of patents, unlawful competition, etc. The suit is thrown out of court.

587 airplanes are produced in US in 1923.


Advance Aircraft Co, Troy, OH, builds the Waco Six.

Aerial Engineering Corp., Hammondsport, NY, is dissolved.

Boeing Airplane Co. completes its order for 200 Army Air Service MB-3A pursuit planes.

Consolidated Aircraft Corp is organized by Major Reuben H Fleet, Vice-President and Manager of Gallaudet Aircraft Corp, East Greenwich, RI. New organization takes over all designs of the Dayton Wright Airplane Co, leases the manufacturing facilities of Gallaudet Aircraft, and begins immediate construction of 20 TW-3 (Dayton Wright) training planes for US Army.

Cox-Klemin Corp. loses the services of Mr Klemin when he resigns from the partnership.

Dayton Wright Airplane Co, aeronautics branch of General Motors Corp, ceases aeronautical activities June 1st and sells designs to Consolidated Aircraft Corp.

Douglas Co designs and builds the DW-C World Cruiser.

Fairchild Aerial Camera Corp increases its authorized capital stock to $500,000.

Gallaudet Aircraft Co dissolved and its factory in East Greenwich, RI, is acquired by the newly formed Consolidated Aircraft Corp.

Johnson Airplane & Supply Co, Dayton, OH, builds a Johnson-Hartzell tractor biplane which wins St Louis Flying Club Trophy Race.

E M Laird sells his interest in the E M Laird Co to J M Mollendick, who incorporates new firm of Swallow Airplane Mfg Co, Wichita; KS.

Longren Aircraft Corp receives order from US Navy for three experimental airplanes which incorporate the Longren molded fiber fuselage.

The Glenn L Martin Co is awarded various contracts by the Navy and the US Air Mail Service for an experimental training plane N2M-1; 36 MO-1 Navy all-metal monoplanes; an MS-1 submarine seaplane; M5-1 seaplanes; three Model M20-1 observation planes; and three Model 66 night mail planes.

Remington-Burnelli Aircraft Corp's Model CRB-1 is washed out in forced landing on Staten Island. Company's RB-2 is still awaiting trial flights.

Roos-Bellanca Airplane Co partnership is split up when Mr Bellanca leaves firm late this year. Bellanca's CF monoplane with 90-hp engine wins Efficiency Contest at the National Air Races in October.

Sikorsky Aero Engineering Corp is formed to build the S-29 14-passenger airplane designed by Igor Sikorsky.

Lawrence Sperry Aircraft Corp, whose latest development is the Verville-Sperry Racer which made a speed of 210 mph in its flying trials, is now inactive as a. result of Lawrence Sperry's death.

Swallow Airplane Mfg Co, Wichita, KS, organized by J M Mollendick to manufacture the Swallow biplane designed originally by E M Laird.

Chance M Vought Co produces a series of UO biplanes for the Navy.

Witteman Aircraft Corp reconstructs 25 DH-4s into DH-4Bs this year but produces no new airplanes.

Wright Aeronautical Corp, in addition to building Model J-2 and J-3 engines for the Navy, enters the airplane manufacturing field with construction of an all-metal pursuit plane.

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January 16 — President Coolidge stops all preparations for the Navy Arctic Expedition, in which it was intended to use airplanes and the dirigible Shenandoah.

February 16 — Two squadrons from Mitchel Field, LI, fly to Brookville, LI, and drop flowers over the grave of the late Lawrence Sperry during funeral services.

February 21 — The first air mail in Alaska is carried by Carl B Eielson in a remodeled DH-4 in an experimental trip between Fairbanks and McGrath, 272 air-line miles.

February 27—Corp C E Conrad, US Air Service, makes parachute jump from an altitude of 21,500 ft at Kelly Field, TX.

March 4 — Army Air Service planes avert flood in Platte River Valley, NE, by dropping bombs to clear ice jam.

March 8 — Lt V F Grant wins the Curtiss-Marine Trophy Race at Miami, FL, attaining a speed of 166 mph in a Vought airplane.

March 17 — Lieutenants Smith, Arnold, Nelson, and Harding start from Santa Monica, CA, in four Douglas World Cruiser airplanes on flight around the world.

April 23 — Lt E M Powers, US Air Service, attains a speed record of 174.7 mph flying an MB-3A pursuit plane around a 45-mile course.

May 10 — Offutt Field, Fort Crook, NE, is formally dedicated to the memory of the late Lt Jarvis Offutt, US Air Service, who lost his life in France during World War.

May 21 — Lt J A Macready, US Air Service, establishes an American altitude record of 35,239 ft in a LePere fighter.

June — US Navy places contract for 155 J-4 radial air-cooled engines with Wright Aeronautical Corporation.

June 7 — $12,798,576 appropriated for the Air Service for Fiscal Year 1925.

June 23 — Lt R L Maughan makes "dawn-to-dusk" flight from New York to San Francisco, a distance of 2,540 miles in 21 hr, 48.5 min, flying a Curtiss airplane.

June 30 — The total flying time of the Navy during the past fiscal year is 58,838 hr; 180 crashes, resulting in 18 fatalities and the complete wrecking of 92 airplanes, occur during this period.

July 1 — Post Office Department opens regular day-and- night through air-mail service between New York and San Francisco.

July 26 — Navy negotiates with the Loening Aircraft Corporation for development of an experimental three-seater amphibian, powered with a 500-hp Packard inverted engine, designed for deck landings and catapult launchings.

September 28 — The Army Air Service's "round-the-world" fliers land at Seattle after covering a distance of 26,345 miles in an elapsed time of 175 days.

October 4 — Lt H H Mills, Army Air Service, wins the Pulitzer Trophy Race with an average speed of 216.55 mph.

October 4 — Lt. Cyrus Bettis, US Air Service, wins the John L Mitchell Trophy Race, over a 200-kilometer course, with an average speed of 175.43 mph.

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October 25 — Naval Air Pageant is held at Bay Shore Park, MD, where 17 world records for seaplanes, including the maximum speed record of 188.82 mph with a Curtiss CR-3 seaplane piloted by Lt G T Cuddihy, are established.

December 9 — The Civil Aeronautics Act, proposing to establish a Bureau of Civil Aeronautics in the Department of Commerce, is reintroduced in Congress by Representative Samuel E Winslow, of Massachusetts.

December 14 — 25,000 people attend formal opening of new airfield at Oklahoma City, where Army aviators from Post Field participate in exercises.

Robert J Collier Trophy for 1924 is awarded to the US Army Air Service for having accomplished the first aerial flight around the world.


Aerial Service Corp, Hammondsport, NY, acquires the services of H C Mummert, well-known light airplane constructor.

Aeromarine Airways is reorganized as the Aeromarine Airways Corp C F Redden continues as President and W A Buckner, associated with Barron G Collier, is elected Secretary.

Aeromarine Plane & Motor Co disbands its aeronautical engineering staff and is now engaged in the production of motor buses.

Atlantic Aircraft Corp is organized to build airplanes designed by Anthony Fokker. New organization purchases plant formerly owned by the now defunct Witteman Aircraft Corp

Baldwin Aircraft Corp dissolves without having built any airplanes.

Boeing Airplane Co's Naval training plane wins competition trials at Pensacola, and company receives orders for 72 of the NB-1 trainer. Boeing also develops a pursuit biplane that undergoes tests by the Army Air Service Engineering Division.

Catron & Fisk Airplane Co, Venice, CA, builds a four-seater airplane called the Constance, which is adaptable for aerial photographic work.

Consolidated Aircraft Corp, East Greenwich, RI, transfers its headquarters to Buffalo, NY, taking over the wartime plant of Curtiss. Company builds the PT-1 training plane.

Cox-Klemin Aircraft Corp transfers its factory to the plant originally built by Ordnance Engineering Co and recently tenanted by the now defunct Baldwin Aircraft Corp. The firm builds three ambulance planes for the Army Air Service.

Curtiss Aeroplane & Motor Co builds a wide variety of aircraft for the Army and Navy, including the PW-8-A Hawk, the XO-1 Falcon, the Condor bomber, the Carrier Pigeon mail plane, and the Curtiss-Hall F4C-1 for the Navy, designed in collaboration with Charles W Hall of New York.

Etinne M Dormey, civilian engineer of the Air Service at McCook Field and formerly engineer with the Spad Co of France, builds a light inexpensive airplane called the Flying Bathtub.

Douglas Co builds the DT-2 and DT-4 torpedo bombing planes. Is also developing an experimental observation plane for the Army.

Fairchild Aerial Surveys, Inc, is incorporated under laws of New York State.

Huff-Daland & Co, Inc, builds several types of training planes for the Army and Navy in addition to the Petrel 4 and the Duster. This latter plane is developed for crop-dusting cotton.

Lincoln Aircraft Co, Lincoln, NE, produces a single-seater sport biplane.

Longren Aircraft Corp, Topeka, KS, is dissolved.

The Glenn L Martin Co is awarded contracts by the Navy for the design and construction of 35 SC-1 and 40 SC-2 scout torpedo bombers. The First Model 70 commercial biplane receives its initial test flights in June.

S S Swanson, Vermillion, SD, who built a sport tractor biplane in 1922, joins the staff of the Lincoln Standard Co

Thomas-Morse Aircraft Corp, Ithaca, NY, tapers off its activities in the aircraft field.

Travel Air Mfg Co, Inc, is organized at Wichita, KS, by Walter Beech, Clyde Cessna, and Walter Innes, Jr, to build commercial airplanes.

Chance Vought Corp, Long Island City, builds UO-1 observation planes for the Navy. A modification of this airplane, designated the QO-1, is also turned out for the Cuban Air Force.

Witteman Aircraft Corp, Hasbrouck Heights, NJ, ceases its activities in airplane construction.

Yackey Aircraft Co is organized by Toney Yackey at Forest Park, IL, to build the Yackey Sport, a rebuilt version of the Thomas-Morse Scout.

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January 24-25 — airplanes take scientists and other observers above clouds in Connecticut to view total eclipse of sun.

January 29 — Navy Bureau of Aeronautics, before a House Committee, opposes the Curry Bill which would create a united Air Service.

February 2 — President Coolidge signs the Kelly Bill which authorizes the Postmaster General to contract airmail routes with private operators.

February 15 — An airplane is hooked on to an airship in flight by Army pilots at Scott Field, IL.

February 27 — Army "round-the-world" pilots awarded the Mackay Trophy for the most meritorious flight of 1924. .

March 13 — Rear Adm W A Moffett is reappointed as Chief of Bureau of Aeronautics, US Navy.

April — Oleo landing gear is tested for the Navy on NB-1 airplane at Seattle. The Oleo gear, which shows every indication of being superior to the old rubber-cord type, is to be tested further at Anacostia with a view toward its general service use.

April 17 — Sgt Randall L Bose and Pvt Arthur Bergo make a delayed parachute jump of 1,500 ft to demonstrate that falling persons remain conscious.

April 27 — Lieutenant Webb, US Navy, makes trial flight of new Wright Cyclone 450-hp air-cooled engine in DT-6 torpedo plane at Muchio's Field, NJ.

April 30 — Rear Adm David W Taylor delivers Wilbur Wright Memorial Lecture before The Royal Aeronautical Society of Great Britain.

May 1 — National Air Transport, Inc, is organized by group of financiers to carry mail and express – and eventually passengers – between large cities in the US.

May 1-2 — Endurance record without refueling of 28 hr, 35 min, 27 sec is established by Lts C H Schildhauer and J R Kyle in a Navy PN-9 boat.

June 1 — Lt Charles A Lindbergh, Air Service Reserve, while flight-testing a privately constructed airplane, is forced to make an emergency parachute jump when the plane refuses to recover from a spin.

June 1 — Ford Motor Company, using Stout all-metal monoplanes powered with single 400-hp Liberty engines, starts an air express line between Dearborn and Chicago.

June 12 — Daniel Guggenheim donates $500,000 toward the establishment of a School of Aeronautics at New York University.

July 1—Giant aerial beacons of 500,000,000 candle power are installed on the night flying route of US Airmail Service between New York and Chicago.

July 1 — Cleveland, OH, opens its $$1,000,000, 1,000-acre municipal airport.

July 15 — Postmaster General Harry S New asks for bids on eight new privately operated airmail routes to be opened in 1926.

July 15 — Dr A Hamilton Rice Expedition, the first to employ airplanes in exploration, returns from headwaters of the Amazon.

August 6 — The Ford Motor Company takes over the Stout Metal Airplane Company with intentions to manufacture commercial airplanes and make delivery of their company products by air to all principal cities in the US.

August 22 — The Army Air Service announces a "recording compass" which registers on a paper chart all of the various headings which an airplane flies.

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August 31-September 10 — John Rodgers attempts a nonstop flight from San Francisco to Hawaii in a PN-9 Navy boat but runs out of gas just 15 miles from the Island of Kauai and is rescued by submarine after days of drifting at sea.

September — President Coolidge appoints Morrow Board to make recommendations affecting Naval Aviation.

September 3 — US Navy's dirigible Shenandoah breaks up in the air after encountering severe storm over Ava, OH, killing 14 and seriously injuring two members of the crew.

September 28-October 4 — The First American Commercial Reliability Tour for airplanes is flown by 16 entrants.

October 12 — Lt Cyrus Bettis, US Air Service, wins the Pulitzer Trophy Race at Mitchel Field, LI, flying a Curtiss-Army R3C-1 at 248.975 mph.

October 26 — Lt James H Doolittle, US Air Service, wins Schneider Cup Race at Bay Shore, MD, flying a Curtiss-Army seaplane Racer at 232 mph.

October 26 — The speed record for seaplanes is broken at Baltimore, MD, when Lt James H Doolittle attains 245.713 mph in the Curtiss R3C-2 plane.

October 28 — Col William Mitchell, former Brigadier General and Assistant Chief of Air Service, is tried by court martial.

November 30 — Douglas Aircraft Company, Inc, is organized.

December 12 — Colonial Air Transport Company organized to carry mail and express between New York and New England.

December 17 — Col William Mitchell found guilty of violating 96th Article of War by Army general court martial, in session since October 28th, and is sentenced to 5 years' suspension of rank, pay, and command.

December 21 — Florida Airways, Inc, is organized to operate airmail routes between Tampa, Fort Myers, Miami, Jacksonville, and Atlanta.

December 27 — Daniel Guggenheim creates a $2,500,000 foundation for the promotion of civil aviation in the US.

Robert Collier Trophy for 1925 is awarded to S Albert Reed for the development of a metal airplane propeller.

789 airplanes are produced in US this year.


Advance Aircraft Co, Troy, OH, is currently building the Waco Nine biplane.

Aerial Service Corp, Hammondsport, NY, produces a line of Mercury biplanes.

Aircraft Corp of America (Airco) is formed in New York to act as selling agents for the Sikorsky Mfg Co.

Alexander Aircraft Co organized as a subsidiary of Alexander Industries at Denver, CO. Presently building the Eaglerock biplane powered with an OX-5 Curtiss engine.

American Eagle Aircraft Co is organized at Kansas City, MO.

Boeing Airplane Co builds the PN-9 flying boat for the Navy. Also in production on a Government contract for 112 PW-9 pursuit planes.

Buhl-Verville Aircraft Co is organized by Lawrence D Buhl and Alfred V Verville at Detroit, MI.

Consolidated Aircraft Corp produces the PT-1 Trusty training biplane.

Cox-Klemin Aircraft Corp, Baldwin, LI, is now in the hands of receivers.

Curtiss Aeroplane & Motor Co develops two commercial planes: the Carrier Pigeon for mail and freight carrying, and the Lark for light passenger and freight work. Also builds F6C-1 fighter planes for the Navy.

Charles Dickinson, of Chicago, purchases the Air Express Airplane designed by Charles H Day, formerly Chief Engineer of the Standard Aerial Corp in 1921, and has it completed by the Rogers Construction Co. Airplane was only about 50 per cent completed in 1921 when the company ordering it went out of business.

Douglas Co produces the C-1 Army transport plane in addition to the M-2 mail plane, O-2 biplane, and the Commuter mono.

Edo Aircraft Corp, with Earl L Osborn as President and B V Korvin-Kroukovsky as Chief Engineer, is organized at College Point, LI.

Fairchild Aviation Corp, Farmingdale, LI, is formed by Sherman M Fairchild as a subsidiary company of the Fairchild Corp to manufacture commercial airplanes.

Anthony Fokker's Universal monoplane, built by Atlantic Aircraft Corp, is adopted by Colonial Air Transport, Inc, for use on its Boston-New York mail route.

Henry Ford enters the field of airplane production by taking over Stout Metal Airplane Co

Heath Airplane Co, Chicago, introduces the Hummingbird Model, designed by Clare Linstedt.

Huff-Daland Airplanes, Inc, adds the Pelican, Panther, and Pegasus to its line of production models.

G S Ireland, sales representative of the Curtiss Aeroplane & Motor Co, conceives the idea of utilizing excess Oriole fuselages and builds two airplanes designated the Comet and Meteor.

Kirkham Products Co, Garden City, LI, produces a five-seater flying boat designed by Charles B Kirkham.

The Glenn L Martin Co produces a series of Scout torpedo bombers for the Navy, including Models SC-1, SC-2, and SC-6.

McCarthy Aeronautical Engineering Co, Inc, is formed at Grand Rapids, MI, with a capital of $100,000.

Montee Aircraft Co, Santa Monica, CA, is organized by K W Montee. Plans to build a four-place monoplane.

Packard Motor Car Co produces its first inverted aircraft engine, Model 1A-1500. Engine develops 500 hp.

Pitcairn Aviation, Inc, Bryn Athyn, PA, which has been in existence for some time as suppliers and repairers of airplanes, designs a passenger and express mail plane which is now in the process of construction.

Prof C H Powell of the Aero Department, University of Detroit, designs a midget light plane which wins the Scientific American, Aero Digest, and Dayton Daily News Trophies, in the National Races held in New York.

Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Co, with F B Rentschler as President and George A Mead as Chief Engineer, is formed at Hartford, CT, to manufacture aircraft engines.

Claude T Ryan produces his first own-built and -designed airplane, the M-1 monoplane.

Sikorsky Mfg Co takes over the Sikorsky Aero Engineering Corp. The new company, of which Igor Sikorsky is President, is capitalized for $1,000,000.

Travel Air Mfg Co produces Travel Air Special biplane.

Chance Vought Corp, in addition to producing UO-1, UO-3, UF-1, and O2U-1 military aircraft, develops a Naval transport and commercial carrier plane, which are being produced in small quantities.

White's Aircraft, Des Moines, IA, produces a tractor biplane called the Hummingbird.

Woodson Mfg Co, Bryan, OH, produces a commercial biplane designated the Foto.

Wright Aeronautical Corp develops the Apache shipboard fighter. Also produces a monoplane, called the Wright-Bellanca Mono, designed by Mr Bellanca.

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January 14 — Six men make successful parachute jumps in rapid succession through trap door of Douglas transport over Kelly Field, TX.

January 27 — Col William Mitchell resigns as Assistant Chief of the Army Air Service as result of court martial.

January 29 — Lt John A Macready reaches height of 38,704 ft over McCook Field, setting a new American altitude record.

February 6 — Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Company produces its first engine, a nine-cylinder radial air-cooled engine, which develops about 400 hp at 1,800 rpm. (See illus p 33)

February 12 —Arthur ("Art") Smith, one of America's leading aviators, loses his life when his mail plane strikes a tree on the Chicago-New York route near Montpelier, OH.

February 13 — New 10-cent airmail stamp is put on sale by Post Office Department.

February 15 — Ford Motor Company opens a contract airmail service between Detroit, Chicago, and Cleveland.

February 28 — In a test to prove reliability of the earth inductor compass, Lt L P Whitten and Navigator Bradley Jones fly nonstop from Dayton to Boston in 5 hr, 50 min, using only navigation instruments for guidance.

March 6 — Mackay Army Trophy is presented to Lt Cyrus Bettis, winner of 1925 Pulitzer Race, and to Lt James H Doolittle, winner of the 1925 Schneider Cup Race.

March 23 — S D Heron, inventor of sodium-filled valves for internal combustion engines, grants exclusive license for the manufacture of such valves to the Rich Tool Company, later absorbed by Eaton Manufacturing Company, Cleveland, OH.

March 29 — Paul W Litchfield is elected President of Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company.

April 1 — Major L D Gardner starts from Croydon Airdrome, London, on a tour of Europe by air.

April 14 — Miami-Jacksonville airmail route opened.

April 6 — Contract airmail service between Elko, NV, and Pasco, WA, is opened by Walter T Varney.

April 15 — Airmail service between Chicago and St Louis is started by Robertson Aircraft Corporation.

April 15 — $15,256,964 appropriated for the Air Service for Fiscal Year 1927.

April 16 — Department of Agriculture purchases a new cotton-duster airplane for its Tallulah Laboratory.

April 17 — Western Air Express, Inc, opens a contract airmail service between Salt Lake City and Los Angeles.

April 17 — Lt John A Macready resigns his commission with the Engineering Division at McCook Field and the Army Air Service.

April 21 — Secretary of the Navy Wilbur signs order under which Naval Academy graduates will be given instructions in flying.

April 21 — Navy reports satisfactory tests on an engine using heavy oil designed and built by A P Attendu for airships.

May 8 — Congress passes the Air Commerce Act authorizing the Weather Bureau to provide meteorological service over routes designated by the Secretary of Commerce as suitable for air commerce and over the high seas; to establish and maintain stations in aid of air navigation; and to conduct aerological researches and studies.

May 9 — Lt Comdr Richard Byrd and Floyd Bennett fly over the North Pole in the trimotored Fokker Josephine Ford (named in honor of Edsel Ford's daughter).

May 12 — National Air Transport, Inc, opens airmail service between Chicago and Dallas, TX.

May 12 — Amundsen and Ellsworth fly over the North Pole in the dirigible Norge.

May 20 — President Coolidge signs the Bingham-Parker Bill, known as the Air Commerce Act.

June 7 — Contract airmail service between Chicago and St Paul-Minneapolis is opened by Northwest Airways, Inc.

June 24 — Congress authorizes a 5-year building program for Naval aviation.

July 1 — Edward P Warner, Professor of Aeronautics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is nominated by President Coolidge to become Assistant Secretary of Navy in Charge of Aviation.

July 1 — Colonial Air Transport, Inc, opens contract airmail service between Boston and New York.

July 1 — Congress gives $550,000 to the Department of Commerce as a second deficiency appropriation to carry out the terms of the Air Commerce Act of May 20th. Of this, $250,000 is for general expenses of administration, inspection licensing, etc, and $300,000 for the establishment of aids to navigation, such as lights, radio beacons, etc.

July 2 — Hon Trubee Davison is appointed by President Coolidge as Assistant Secretary of War for Aeronautics.

July 2 — The name of the Army Air Service is changed to the Army Air Corps, by Act of Congress.

July 6 — Airmail service between Philadelphia and Washington is inaugurated by the Pennsylvania Rapid Transit Company, the first ground transportation company to take to the air.

July 17 — A M Herring, air pioneer who served as assistant to Octave Chanute and as an early business associate of Glenn Curtiss, dies.

July 20 — Major L D Gardner's 26,000-mile European air tour ends with his arrival at Croydon Airdrome, London. He flew to Russia, North Africa, and Baghdad.

July 20 — Major Carl Spaatz, US Army Air Corps, flies a P-1 from Washington to San Antonio, TX, in the new unofficial record time of 13 hr

August — The Army and Navy work together in an effort to develop some form of apparatus which will dispel fog from landing fields. Principle now being tested is the release of electrically charged sand from an airplane in flight.

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August 7-21 — Ford Reliability Tour is won by Walter Beech flying a Travel Air plane powered with a Wright J-4.

August 10 — Hon William P MacCracken is appointed Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Aeronautics by President Coolidge.

August 18 — A training plane is dropped at San Diego Naval Air Station by means of a parachute, the first time this feat has been accomplished.

August 27 — Comdr John Rodgers, US Navy, is killed in airplane crash at the Naval Aircraft factory, Philadelphia.

September 1 — Lt Cyrus Bettis, premier speed pilot of the Army Air Corps, dies at Walter Reed General Hospital as a result of injuries received in an airplane crash into the mountains near Bellefonte, PA.

September 3 — Lt James H Doolittle, demonstrating Curtiss airplanes in South America, flies over the Andes Mountains.

September 9 — Porter H Adams, of Boston, is elected President of the NAA to succeed Godfrey L Cabot.

September 15 — Pacific Air Transport, Inc, begins contract airmail service between Seattle and Los Angeles.

September 16 — Capt. Charles A Lindbergh, Air Corps Reserve, is forced to parachute from his airmail plane during a night flight through heavy fog when gasoline supply is exhausted.

September 20 — Naval Air Station, Pensacola, FL, suffers huge losses from a hurricane.

September 21 — In an effort to capture the $25,000 Orteig Prize for the first aviator to fly from New York to Paris, Capt Rene Fonck, French aviator, flying an S-35 Sikorsky, crashes on takeoff from Roosevelt Field, LI. Two crew members, Jacob Islamoff and Charles Clavier, are burned to death in crash, but Capt Fonck and Lt L W Curtin, US Navy officer acting as navigator, are uninjured.

October 1 — Daniel Guggenheim Fund for the promotion of aeronautics makes a grant to the University of Michigan for the completion of a wind tunnel and the establishment of the Daniel Guggenheim Chair of Aeronautics for a period of 10 years.

October 4 — H H Culver is arrested by an air traffic cop on a charge of reckless flying and is held in $25 bail for appearance in court at Delmonte, CA,

November 3 — Capt Charles A Lindbergh is again forced to jump from a disabled airplane during night airmail flight, marking the fourth time he has saved his life through the use of a parachute.

November 13 — Cyrus K Bettis Field, in honor of Lt Cyrus K Bettis who lost his life in an airplane accident near Bellefonte, PA, is dedicated as a new airport near Pittsburgh.

November 15 — Post Office Department issues advertisements inviting proposals on the transcontinental route, giving both day and overnight services, Chicago to San Francisco.

December — Kenneth W Montee, President and Chief Engineer of Montee Aircraft Company, Santa Monica, CA, dies of a fever contracted while carrying out a mapping flight.

December 7 — First lighted beacon erected by Aeronautics Branch of the Department of Commerce is put into operation on the Chicago-Dallas route.

December 18 — Aeronautics Branch, Department of Commerce, publishes first issue of Domestic Air News.

December 31 — Department of Commerce Air Regulations of the Air Commerce Act become effective.

5,782 passengers are carried by US domestic air lines during this year.

Robert J Collier Trophy for 1926 is awarded to Major E L Hoffman for the development of a practical parachute.

1,186 airplanes, plus 150 which are made up from war surplus parts, are produced in US in 1926.


Berliner Aircraft Co, Inc, is established at Alexandria, VA, by H A Berliner, son of Emil Berliner, inventor of the Berliner helicopter.

Boeing Airplane Co develops the F2B-1 carrier fighter for the Navy, using duralumin for the first time in this model. Company also builds the Boeing 40-A mail-passenger airplane for use on Chicago-San Francisco route.

Buhl Aircraft Co, formerly Buhl-Verville Aircraft Co of Detroit, changes its name and moves into larger factory at Marysville, MI. New company now produces the Airster biplane.

Consolidated Aircraft Corp, Buffalo, NY, designs a primary training airplane for the Navy called the Husky, in addition to producing quantities of the PT-1 Trusty for the Army.

Douglas Co builds the O-2 observation plane for the Army.

Charles F Dycer, proprietor of Dycer Airport, Los Angeles, designs a two-seater "sport" plane and a five-passenger cabin biplane.

G Elias & Bro, Inc, introduce their latest commercial machine, the Airmobile.

Fairchild Aviation Corp produces the FC-1A semi-cantilever monoplane designed especially for photographic purposes.

Hess Aircraft Co is established at Detroit by A W and A T Hess. Company plans to produce a single-bay biplane known as the Bluebird.

T D Huff resigns as President of Huff-Daland Airplanes, Inc, and E N Gott, previously President of Boeing and Vice-President of Fokker, becomes President of the firm.

Ireland Aircraft, Inc, Garden City, LI, is incorporated with Bertram Work as President and G S Ireland, Vice-President.

Malcolm and Allen Loughead, Scotch brothers, start an airplane manufacturing company in Burbank, CA.

The Glenn L Martin Co delivers the last of 40 SC-2 torpedo bombers to the Navy and starts work on a Navy contract calling for more than 100 Model T3M-1 three-purpose biplanes. The fuselage of this latter airplane is constructed of alloy steel.

Pitcairn Aviation, Inc, conducts successful flight tests on their first own-designed and -built airplane, which they call the Fleetwing.

Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Co starts quantity production of its air-cooled radial engines.

Sikorsky Mfg Co builds the S-31.

Stinson Airplane Syndicate becomes the Stinson Aircraft Corp. The reorganized firm produces the Stinson Detroiter, a cabin plane having an entirely enclosed heated and soundproof cabin, engine starter, and wheel brakes.

Stout Metal Airplane Co, Division of Ford Motor Co, develops the AT-4 trimotored transport monoplane.

Waterhouse Aircraft, Inc, is formed at Glendale, CA, to develop a three-place monoplane designated the Crusair.

Wright Aeronautical Corp begins factory production in June on their J-5 Model engine. The company abandons the construction of aircraft and concentrates its entire facilities on the manufacture of engines.

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January 25 — New 20-cent airmail stamp is placed on sale.

January 28 — Boeing Airplane Co, Seattle, is awarded contract by Post Office Department for the Chicago-San Francisco section of the transcontinental mail route.

February — Army Air Corps completes aerial photographic project for the US Coast and Geodetic Survey, covering the east and west coasts of Florida, embracing approximately 1,284 square miles.

February — Navy gives contract to Curtiss for 27 F6C-4 and to Boeing for 32 F2B-1 fighter planes.

February 1 — New airmail postage rate of 10 cents per ½ oz becomes effective.

February 23 — $20,602,594 appropriated for Army Air Corps for Fiscal Year 1928.

February 28 — Pitcairn Aviation, Inc, Philadelphia, is awarded airmail contract for the New York-Atlanta route.

March 26 — National Association of Balloon Officers of World War is organized.

March 28 — Ford Motor Company inaugurates a private air express route between Detroit and Buffalo.

April — Bureau of Aeronautics and the Department of Commerce conduct experiments in an endeavor to procure substitute for imported Japanese silk for parachutes to make this country independent of foreign materials.

April — Lt Comdr Richard Byrd, pilot Floyd Bennett, Lt George O Noville, and Anthony Fokker, crack up the Fokker monoplane America in first trial flight. Plane built to attempt New York to Paris flight. Bennett seriously hurt and Byrd suffers broken wrist.

April 2 — National Air Transport is awarded the contract covering the New York-Chicago section of the transcontinental mail route.

April 12-14 — Clarence D Chamberlain and B B Acosta set duration record of 51 hr, 11 min, 25 sec at New York in a Wright J-5-powered Bellanca monoplane.

April 21 — Contract airmail service between Pittsburgh and Cleveland is opened by Clifford T Ball.

April 26 — Lt Comdr Noel Davis and Lt H S Wooster, US Navy, are killed in the American Legion biplane, with which they intended to fly to Paris within the next few weeks, when the plane crashes on a test flight at Messick, VA.

April 28 — The first airmail service to operate north of the Arctic Circle is inaugurated between Fairbanks and Wiseman, AK.

May 18 — Daily passenger and express service between Chicago and Louisville, KY, is inaugurated by Embry-Riddle Company.

May 20-21 — Charles A Lindbergh makes the first nonstop flight from New York to Paris, 3,610 miles in 33 hr, 30 min, thereby winning the Orteig Prize of $25,000.

May 24 — A joint conference of the Aircraft Industry and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics is held at Langley Field, VA.

May 25 — Lt James H Doolittle does an "outside loop" in an airplane; first time this feat has ever been accomplished.

June — The Navy Department issues the following certificate (the first of its kind in Naval History):

"The Navy Department, expressing its appreciation of his overseas flight, invites Col Charles A Lindbergh to make use of Naval airplanes of the United States. The Commanding officers of all Naval units are hereby authorized to place service equipment at his disposal, either for local or cross-country flying."

June 4 — Daniel Guggenheim School of Aeronautics is officially opened at New York University.

June 4-5 —Clarence D Chamberlain and Charles A Levine, in the Bellanca monoplane Columbia, fly nonstop from New York to Eisleben, Germany, a distance of 3,905 miles in 42 hr, 15 min

June 11-13 — Charles A Lindbergh, returning from France on the USS Memphis, receives spectacular welcome at Washington and New York.

June 18 — The new Lindbergh airmail stamp is placed on sale.

June 28-29 — Lt Lester Maitland, pilot, and Lt Albert F Hegenberger, navigator, fly from Oakland, CA, to Honolulu, 2,407 miles in 25 hr, 50 min, in an Army tri-motored Fokker.

June 29-30 — Comdr Richard Byrd, Acosta, Noville, and Balchen fly the Fokker landplane America from New York to France, only to crash in the sea off the French coast after battling severe adverse weather all the way. None of the crew is seriously injured.

July 1 — Boeing Air Transport Company takes over operation of the Chicago-San Francisco division of the transcontinental airmail route.

July 1—A Director of Aeronautics, Clarence M Young, is appointed to have immediate supervision over the work of the Aeronautics Branch of the Department of Commerce.

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July 1 — Federal aids to air navigation on the transcontinental airways are turned over to the Department of Commerce from the Post Office Department for maintenance.

July 4 — Lt C C Champion, US Navy, establishes a world's landplane altitude record of 37,995 ft in a Wright Apache at Anacostia, VA.

July 12 — Edward Stinson, flying a Wright Whirlwind-powered Stinson Detroiter, wins the Ford Reliability Tour.

July 14-15 — Ernest Smith, civilian pilot, and Emory B Bronte, navigator, flying the Travel Air monoplane City of Oakland, make crash landing in trees on the Island of Molokai, Hawaii, in attempt to fly from Oakland to Honolulu.

July 15 — First airways strip map of Department of Commerce, from Moline, IL, to Kansas City, MO, is announced for sale.

July 20 — Col Charles A Lindbergh, flying the Spirit of St Louis, begins his tour of the country under the auspices of the Daniel Guggenheim Fund.

July 25 — Lt C C Champion flies to 38,474 ft in the Wright Apache, setting a new world's altitude record and breaking his own record established earlier.

August — James D Dole, wealthy pineapple grower of Hawaii, offers a first prize of $25,000 and a second prize of $10,000 to winners of a race, to be held sometime in August, from Oakland, CA, to Honolulu.

August 1 — Clarence D Chamberlain takes off from a specially built runway on the Leviathan and flies 100 miles to land, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of ship-to-shore mail service.

August 16-17 — Of eight entrants finally approved by Government officials to participate in the Dole Air Derby only four actually get off without mishap. Arthur Goebel and William Davis, flying the Travel Air Woolaroc, win First Prize, landing in Honolulu after 26 hr, 17 min, 33 sec, of flying. Martin Jensen and Capt Paul Schluter, flying the Aloha, a Wright Whirlwind-powered Breese plane, win Second Prize. Other two entrants, Miss Doran, a biplane piloted by Auggie Pedler, with Lt V R Knope, US Navy, as navigator, and Miss Mildred Doran, a school teacher, as passenger; and the Golden Eagle, a Lockheed monoplane flown by Jack Frost and Gordon Scott, disappear at sea and are never heard from again despite repeated search.

August — Lt William Davis, US Navy, is awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for his feat in navigating the Woolaroc in the Dole Air Derby.

August 25 — Paul Redfern takes off from Brunswick, GA, in an attempted nonstop flight to Rio de Janeiro, but presumably is lost at sea.

August 27-September 14 — W Brock and W F Schlee, in a Stinson Detroiter, fly from Harbor Grace, Newfoundland, to Tokyo, Japan, via Europe and Asia, covering 12,295 miles in 18 days, with a total 145.5 flying hr

August 31 — The Post Office Department relinquishes operation of its last airmail route, turning all future operations over to private contractors.

September — National Air Transport Company, Inc, starts operating the airmail route from Chicago to New York, thus completing the transcontinental service in conjunction with Boeing Air Transport Company.

September 1 — The American Railway Express Company starts large-scale air express operations in the US by negotiating contracts with all major air lines.

September 18 — Passenger service between Detroit and Cleveland is started by Stout Air Services.

September 23 — During the National Air Races at Spokane, WA, Lt E C Patten, Army Air Corps, piloting an experimental-type pursuit plane, averages a speed of 201.239 mph over a 120-mile course.

September 29 — President Coolidge presents the Distinguished Flying Cross to Lts Lester Maitland and Albert F Hegenberger, of Army Air Corps, for their successful flight from Oakland, CA, to Honolulu.

October — The new Wright Field at Dayton is dedicated with impressive ceremonies in the presence of many distinguished guests.

October 10 — Continental Airlines of Cleveland is awarded contract for airmail service between Cleveland, Akron, Columbus, Dayton, Cincinnati, and Louisville.

October 16 — Charles M Manly, pioneer in the development of aeronautical engines, dies.

October 23 — Col Charles A Lindbergh returns to New York after having completed a tour of the 48 states in the Spirit of St Louis.

October 28 — Mail and passenger service between Key West and Havana is opened by Pan American Airways.

November 1 — Passenger service between San Diego and Los Angeles is started by Maddux Airlines.

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November 6 — Lt "Al" Williams, flying a small Kirkham racing plane originally designed for the Schneider Cup Race and powered with a 1,250-hp 24-cylinder Packard engine, flies at an unofficial speed of 322.6 mph.

November 13 — President Coolidge gives White House Luncheon in honor of transoceanic pilots Lindbergh, Chamberlain, Levine, Maitland, Hegenberger, Byrd, Balchen, Bronte, Goebel, Schluter, Brock, Schlee, Elder, and Haldeman.

November 19 — Pitcairn Aviation, Inc, is awarded contract for airmail route from Atlanta to Miami.

December 10 — Col Charles A Lindbergh is awarded Congressional Medal of Honor.

December 13 — Colonel Lindbergh begins a "good-will flight" to Central and South America, flying nonstop from Washington to Mexico City, 2,600 miles in 27 hr

Robert Collier Trophy for 1927 is awarded to Charles L Lawrance for the development of radial air-cooled aircraft engines.

National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, at its Langley Field, VA, Laboratories, builds the first wind tunnel large enough to test a full-size airplane.

1,995 airplanes are produced in US this year.


Advance Aircraft Co brings out the Waco Ten.

Arrow Aircraft Corp, Havelock, NE, introduces the Arrow Five and the Arrow Sport.

Bach Aircraft Co, Inc, Santa Monica, CA, begins operations in March but is not incorporated until September. Company is building the Air Yacht, a three-engined commercial cabin monoplane.

G M Bellanca and A Bellanca establish the Bellanca Aircraft Co, Inc, with factory at Newcastle, DE, where they produce Models CH-2, P, and K, the last two being sesquiplanes.

H A Berliner, President of Berliner Aircraft Co, establishes the Potomac Flying Service, which he intends to equip with airplanes built in his own factory.

The Boeing organization branches out into the air transportation field by entering the lowest responsible bid for operation of the San Francisco-Chicago airmail route. Simultaneously, the Boeing Airplane Co factory enters into the quantity production of commercial aircraft, building 25 of its famous Model 40 planes for use in this airline service. Company also produces PW-9D pursuit ship for the Army and the F2B-1 shipboard fighter for the Navy.

Central States Aero Co, Inc, organized at Davenport, IA, with plant at Bettendorf, where they are building a small monoplane designated the Monocoupe.

Cessna Aircraft Co is established at Wichita, KS, by Clyde V Cessna.

Columbia Aircraft Corp formed in New York to take over the construction rights of the record-breaking Bellanca monoplane, Columbia, from the Wright Aeronautical Corp

Douglas Co builds the T2D-1, three-purpose airplane, for the Navy.

Driggs Aircraft Corp is organized at Lansing, MI, to build the Driggs Dart, a modification of the DJ-1 monoplane originally built by the Johnson Airplane & Supply Co and designed by Ivan Driggs, Vice-President of the new organization.

Eberhart Aeroplane & Motor Co, Inc, is organized from company originally known as Eberhart Steel Products Co. New company, of which Cleborne Eberhart, Jr, is President, produces two airplanes known as the Iroquois and the FG-1 Comanche.

Fairchild Aviation Corp is incorporated in the State of Delaware. Company produces the FC-2, an improved five-place version of the original FC-1A monoplane, and sells 23 Fairchild airplanes this year.

Gates-Day Aircraft Corp is incorporated at Paterson, NJ, by Ivan R. Gates and Charles H Day, to build the Standard G-D-24, originally designed by Mr Day.

Gillis Aircraft Corp established at Battle Creek, MI, to build the Crusader, a four-place cabin biplane.

Hall-Aluminum Aircraft Co is formed at Buffalo, NY, to take over the engineering developments of Charles Ward Hall in the all-metal aircraft field.

Hamilton Metalplane Co is organized at Milwaukee, to construct an all-metal passenger- and mail-carrying cabin monoplane, designed by Thomas Hamilton.

Huff-Daland Airplanes, Inc, is reorganized and name of company is changed to Keystone Aircraft Corp. E N Gott is President, and Elliott Daland, Vice-President and Chief Engineer.

International Aircraft Corp is incorporated this year to manufacture and market airplanes designed by E M Fisk.

Kinner Airplane & Motor Corp, Glendale, CA, is manufacturing a small two-place commercial plane, the Airster.

Kreider-Reisner Aircraft Co, Inc, Hagerstown, MD, introduces the Midget, a single-seater light monoplane designed by Charles W Meyers.

Laird Aircraft Corp, Wichita, KS, is organized. To eliminate confusion between this company and the E M Laird Airplane Co of Chicago, the new firm registers the trade name Whippoorwill to designate its airplanes.

Lawson Aircraft Co, of which Alfred W Lawson is President, is organized.

Lincoln Aircraft Co, Lincoln, NE, produces the L-S-5, a five-place commercial biplane.

Grover Loening, President of Loening Aeronautical Engineering Corp, New York City, patents a single-wheel amphibian type of airplane. This machine is now under construction by the company, of which LeRoy Grumman is General Manager.

Loughead brothers reorganize their firm in Burbank, CA, as the Lockheed Aircraft Co The first ship built by the Lougheads is the Golden Eagle.

The Glenn L Martin Co develops and delivers 102 T3M-2 airplanes for the Navy. Also designs and constructs an experimental torpedo plane Model XTN-1 and a three-purpose airplane for carrier use, designated as Model XT4M-1.

McCarthy Aeronautical Engineering Co, Inc, now located at Detroit, is manufacturing a two-place semi-cantilever monoplane called the Air Scout.

Mohawk Aircraft Corp, Minneapolis, is established and builds a two-place light monoplane called the Pinto.

Montee Aircraft Co, Santa Monica, CA, ceases its activities this year after the death of Kenneth Montee in December, 1926.

National Airways System, Lomax, IL, develops a four-seater commercial biplane called the Air King.

Pheasant Aircraft Co, Inc, is established at Memphis, MO, and produces the Pheasant biplane.

Pitcairn Aviation, Inc, designs a mail plane especially for use on the company's New York-Atlanta contract airmail route.

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Prudden-San Diego Airplane Co, San Diego, CA, is established with $1,500,000 authorized capital stock to build the TM-1 trimotored, eight-passenger monoplane designed by G Prudden, former engineer with the Airplane Division of Ford Motor Co

Ryan Airlines, San Diego, CA, is taken over by the B F Mahoney Aircraft Corp and continues building the Ryan Brougham, designed by Claude T Ryan. Company also builds the Spirit of St Louis, a modified version of the Brougham, for Charles A Lindbergh.

Sikorsky Mfg Corp, College Point, LI, builds the S-32, a five-place observation mail-carrier transport; the S-35, a three-engined biplane; and the S-36, an eight-place amphibian flying boat.

Stearman Aircraft, Inc, Venice, CA, is formed by the consolidation of the Lyle-Hoyt Corp, formerly West Coast distributors for Travel Air, and Lloyd Stearman, who is President of the new firm. Company produces the Stearman C.1 single-bay biplane.

Stinson Aircraft Corp continues production of the Detroiter, one of which, the Pride of Detroit, carries Brock and Schlee on their record flight from Newfoundland to Tokyo.

Swallow Airplane Mfg Co, Wichita, KS, produces the Super Swallow four-place touring biplane, which is an improved version of the Laird-Swallow produced by the company in 1924 after it took over the E M Laird Co interests.

Texas Aero Corp, Temple, TX, is incorporated to build the Temple monoplane.

Thomas-Morse Aircraft Corp, Ithaca, NY, after being relatively inactive in the airplane field for the past few years, produces the O-6 all-metal observation biplane.

Thunderbird Aircraft, Inc, is established in Los Angeles to undertake construction of the Thunderbird, commercial biplane originally built by the W-F-W Aircraft Co.

O W Timm Airplane Corp is formed on the West Coast.

Travel Air Mfg Co, Wichita, KS, produces a passenger monoplane, in addition to their three-place biplane.

Chance Vought Corp, Long Island City, develops two new airplanes this year, the Corvette and the Dolphin, in addition to producing its long line of Naval aircraft.

Western Airplane Corp, Chicago, announces production of a three-place biplane called the King Bird.

Woodson Aircraft Corp, Napoleon, OH (originally known as the Woodson Engineering Co of Bryan, OH), produces three types of airplanes: the 2-A air express; the 3-A transport; and the M-6 small training plane.

Zenith Aircraft Corp is established at Santa Ana, CA, and produces a five-place biplane and the twelve-seater Albatross monoplane.


January 5 — Lt A M Pride, US Navy, lands first plane on deck of carrier Lexington.

January 11 — Lt Comdr M A Mitscher, US Navy, lands first plane on deck of carrier Saratoga.

January 14 — Clarence D Chamberlain and Roger Williams make an endurance flight of 51 hr, 52 min, at Mitchel Field, NY, in a Wright Whirlwind-powered Bellanca monoplane.

January 18 — The first of five supercharged pursuit planes is ferried from the Curtiss plant at Garden City, LI, to Wright Field, Dayton, OH, for inspection and test flights.

January 27 — Navy's dirigible USS Los Angeles successfully lands on deck of the aircraft carrier Saratoga at sea.

February 12 — Charles Holman sets a loop-the-loop record of 1,093 successive loops in a Laird biplane at Minneapolis.

February 13 — Col Charles A Lindbergh lands at St Louis, MO, after his 9,060-mile "good-will flight" in the Spirit of St Louis over Central and South American countries.

February 15 — President Coolidge signs the Bill HR7009 authorizing the Secretary of War to accept the new site near San Antonio, TX, for an Army Air Corps training center.

February 18 — $3,882,975 is authorized for the new primary training center at San Antonio, TX, out of an authorized appropriation of nearly $7,000,000.

February 21—W R Grace & Company and Pan American Airways, Inc, announce formation of Pan American-Grace Airways, Inc.

February 27 — Comdr T E Ellyson, Lt Comdr Hugh Schmidt, and Lt Roger Ransehousen crash and are lost on a night flight from Norfolk, VA, to Annapolis.

March — Ten men of the Army Air Corps jump from a Ford airplane at Chanute Field in the space of 8.2 sec, thus establishing a world record.

March 9 — Lt Burnie R Dallas, US Army Air Corps, achieves the distinction of being the first pilot to fly an amphibian airplane across the American continent, flying a distance of 3,300 miles.

March 10 — $900,000 is authorized for completion of the Wright Field Experimental Laboratory.

March 21 — President Coolidge makes presentation of Congressional Medal of Honor to Col Charles A. Lindbergh, at Washington.

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March 23 — $25,428,564 appropriated for the Air Corps for Fiscal Year 1929.

March 28 — The Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Aeronautics calls a conference of representatives of the Army Air Corps, Bureau of Aeronautics of the Navy, Weather Bureau, Bureau of Standards, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, and the Department of Commerce to study the cause and prevention of ice formation on aircraft.

March 28-30 — "Eddie" Stinson and George Haldeman break world's duration record by remaining in the air over Jacksonville, FL, in a Stinson Detroiter for 53 hr, 36 min, 30 sec. .

April 14-21— All American Aircraft Show, at which 68 airplanes are exhibited, is held in Detroit.

April 15 — Col Arthur Goebel and Harry J Tucker, flying the Lockheed Vega Yankee Doodle, establish new East-to-West transcontinental speed record, flying from New York to Los Angeles in 24 hr, 20 min, including a 35-min stop at Phoenix, AZ.

May — Aeronautics Branch of the Department of Commerce creates a Board to review aircraft accident reports and to determine original causes so far as possible. A Board to determine standard measurements of airway distances is also created.

May 1 — Airport Rating Regulations, set by Aeronautics Branch of Department of Commerce, become effective.

May 19 — Major Charles A Lutz, flying a Curtiss Hawk powered with Curtiss D-12 engine, wins the Curtiss Marine Trophy Race at an average speed of 157.6 mph over the 100-mile course at Washington, DC.

May 22 — First patent on sodium-filled valves for combustion engines is issued to S D Heron.

May 31-June 9 — The Southern Cross monoplane, with Capt Charles Kingsford Smith and Charles Ulm, Australian pilots, and Capt Harry W Lyons and James Warner, Americans, as navigator and radio operator, flies from San Francisco, to Brisbane, Australia, via Hawaii and Fiji Islands, a distance of 7,300 miles in 88½-hr flying time over a period of 8 days.

June — Sherman M Fairchild establishes prizes at New York University of $250, $150, and $75 for the first three best airplane designs accomplished by students.

June 1—New amendments to the Air Commerce Regulations, under administration of Department of Commerce, become effective.

June 9 — Lt C F Schilt, US Marine Corps, is presented the Congressional Medal of Honor for his work in evacuating wounded troops by air at Quilali, Nicaragua, in January of this year.

June 15 — An attempt to transfer mail from an airplane in flight is successfully carried out near Scott Field, IL, when an airplane piloted by Lt Karl S Axtater and Edward H White flies directly over an Illinois Central train and transfers a bag of mail to a railway mail clerk.

June 17-18-18 — Amelia Earhart, with William Stultz, pilot, and Lew Gordon, mechanic, becomes the first woman to fly across the Atlantic, by flying from Trepassey Bay, Newfoundland, to Burry Port, Wales, in the trimotored Fokker Friendship.

June 30-July 22 — Capt C B D Collyer and John H Mears fly around the world in a Wasp-motored Fairchild airplane in 23 days, 15 hr, 8 sec, crossing the Atlantic and Pacific oceans by steamship.

June 30-July 28 — First place in the Fourth National Air Tour is won by P Wood, flying a Whirlwind-motored Waco.

July 28 — Capt John A Macready, Air Corps Reserve, is awarded Distinguished Flying Cross for outstanding flight accomplishments while an officer in the US Army Air Corps.

August 1 — New airmail rate of 5 cents for first ounce and 10 cents for each additional ounce goes into effect.

August l — Continental Airlines starts regular mail and passenger service between Louisville, KY, and Cleveland, OH.

August 6 — JC Hunsaker becomes Vice-President of the Goodyear Zeppelin Corporation.

August 20-21 —Col Arthur Goebel and Harry Tucker, flying the Lockheed Vega Yankee Doodle, make record transcontinental nonstop flight from Los Angeles to New York City in 18 hr, 58 min

September 1 — Colonial Air Transport starts airmail and passenger service operations, linking Montreal, Canada, and New York City.

September 6 — Major Burdette S Wright, Air Reserve, is awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for heroism in action during World War.

September 8-16 — National Air Races held in Los Angeles.

September 15 — Universal Airlines starts daily passenger service between Cleveland and Chicago.

September 22 — Number of lives saved by parachute jumps from disabled airplanes passes the hundred mark when Lt Roger V Williams is forced to "bail out" at San Diego, CA.

September 23 — Lt James H Doolittle, pilot, accompanied by Capt A Stevens, makes an altitude flight of 37,200 ft to obtain aerial photograph covering 33 square miles.

September 29 — Duration flight of 59 hr, 10 min, 15 sec, is made by William Brock and Edward Schlee in a Bellanca monoplane at Rockwell Field, CA.

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October — Army Air Corps develops parachute 84 ft in diameter, of sufficient strength to support weight of an airplane and its passengers.

October 4-5 — First Aeronautical Safety Conference is held in New York under auspices of the Daniel Guggenheim Fund for Promotion of Aeronautics.

October 10 — Capts St Clair Streett and Albert W Stevens, US Army Air Corps, ascend to 37,854 ft, establishing a two-man altitude record that is only 560 ft less than the official world record for single-occupant flight.

October 18 — First outside loop in a commercial airplane is accomplished by Fred Lund in a Sport Waco at Troy, OH.

November 17 — Lts Lester J Maitland and Alfred F Hegenberger are awarded the Clarence H McKay Trophy for their flight to Honolulu in June, 1927.

November 28 — First flight over the South Pole is made in monoplane Floyd Bennett by Comdr Richard Byrd, Bert Balchen, Capt Ashley, C. McKinley, and Harold I June, flying from camp in "Little America."

December — Air Medical Association, made up of Army, Navy, and civilian physicians, is formed at the International Aeronautics Conference.

Robert Collier Trophy for 1928 is awarded to the Aeronautics Branch, Department of Commerce, for development of airways and air navigation facilities.

4,761 airplanes are produced by the aircraft industry this year.


Acme Aircraft Corp, organized at Rockford, IL, produces a two-place sporting biplane.

Aero-Craft Mfg Co is established in Detroit. Company exhibits first production model, a three-place biplane called the Aero-coupe at Detroit Aircraft Show.

Aeronautical Corp of America is incorporated under laws of Ohio at Cincinnati. Company, under direction of Taylor Stanley, President, produces a light plane called the Aeronca.

American Aeronautical Corp, Port Washington, LI, is formed to manufacture in America three types of Italian Savoia-Marchetti flying boats, the Models S-55, S-56, and S-62.

Arkansas Aircraft Co registers the name CommandAire as a tradename for the three-place commercial biplanes the company produces.

Atlantic Aircraft Corp, Teterboro, NJ, produces the Universal, Super Universal, F-7 trimotor, F-10 Super Trimotor, XLB-2, C-2A, and TA-1, all designs of Anthony Fokker.

Bird Wing Commercial Aircraft Co is established at St Joseph, MO, to produce a three-place biplane called the Imperial.

Boeing Airplane Co builds numerous popular models, including the Model 40-C, the Model 95 mail plane, the 80 and 80-A trimotored transport, and the famous P-12 and F4B series of pursuits and carrier fighters for the Army and Navy.

Brown-Mercury Aircraft Corp, Los Angeles, builds a three-place commercial monoplane.

Brunner & Winkle Aircraft Corp is incorporated at Glendale, LI, to build the Bird biplane.

Butler Aviation Corp is organized at Kansas City to produce the Black Hawk biplane designed by W M Stearman.

Cairns Aircraft Syndicate is established at Naugatuck, CT.

Capital Aircraft Corp, established at Detroit, produces the two-place Air-Trainer.

Cessna Aircraft Co's airplane makes its first public appearance at 1928 National Air Races, where it wins the Class A Transcontinental Air Derby.

Consolidated Aircraft Corp doubles the area of its factory space and adds 25% to its number of employees this year. The company's famous Husky, Jr training plane is turned over for production to Fleet Aircraft Inc, Division of Consolidated, and renamed the Fleet biplane. Up to this time, Consolidated has produced 600 two-place commercial biplanes.

Courier Monoplane Co is established at Los Angeles, building a three-place cabin monoplane designed by W J Waterhouse.

Crawford All Metal Airplane Co is established by Harvey Crawford at Los Angeles.

Cunningham-Hall Aircraft Corp, closely associated with James Cunningham, Sons & Co, manufacturers of motor cars, is incorporated at Rochester, NY.

Curtiss Aeroplane & Motor Co produces the XNZC-1 Fledgling training biplane for the Navy, in addition to its long line of military airplanes: the Hawk, Superhawk, Seahawk, Falcon, and Condor night bomber.

Curtiss-Robertson Airplane Mfg Corp, with Major W B Robertson, President, C M Keys, Vice-President, and B Livingston, Secretary and Treasurer, is established at Anglum, St Louis County, MO, to undertake production of the Robin, a three-place cabin monoplane.

Donald W Douglas heads reorganization of his company, which is now known as Douglas Aircraft Co, Inc. New organization, of which Douglas is President and J H. Kindelberger is Vice-President of Engineering, continues to build a long line of airplanes for the military services, including the O2-H, T2D-1, C-1C, MO- 2B, DAM-4S, and the M-4 mail plane.

Doyle Aero Corp is incorporated at Baltimore, MD. Company manufactures a two-place light monoplane called the Oriole.

Dragon Fly Aircraft Corp is established at Chicago to produce the two-place light monoplane Dragon Fly.

J H Eastman and T Towle, of the Beasley-Eastman Laboratories, Detroit, design and build a two-place, short-hulled sesquiplane flying boat, which they exhibit at Detroit Aircraft Show.

Edo Aircraft Corp, College Point, LI, is now devoting its entire facilities to the development of airplane floats.

G Elias & Bro, Inc, Buffalo, NY, produces two models this year: the Aircoupe and Airexpress.

Fairchild continues production of the F-71 six-passenger monoplane and the P-1 Model, several of which are acquired for use as four-passenger transports on South American airline routes.

Federal Aircraft Corp, San Bernardino, CA is incorporated and builds the CM-1 Lone Eagle and CM-3 cabin monoplanes. This company was originally known as Ryan Mechanics Monoplane Co, a firm that was started by a number of men concerned with building the Spirit of St Louis for Lindbergh.

Franklin Aircraft Corp is established at Franklin, PA.

General Airplanes Corp is established at Buffalo, NY. Company builds the Model 101 Surveyor and 102-A Aristocrat.

Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co up to this year has built 43 complete airships and 119 envelopes for airships.

Great Lakes Aircraft Corp is formed at Cleveland, purchasing the properties formerly owned by the Glenn L Martin Co, and begins construction of a two-place open biplane.

Huntington Aircraft Corp is incorporated at Bridgeport, CT.

E P Hurd, Aeronautical Division, Detroit, is formed to manufacture the HM-1 two-seater light monoplane.

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International Aircraft Corp is established at Cincinnati to take over the International Aircraft Corp of Los Angeles and build the F-17 Sportsman and F-18 Aircoach.

Ireland Aircraft, Inc, builds the Neptune, five-place amphibian flying boat.

Kari-Keene Aircraft, Inc, established as a subsidiary of Kari-Keene Mfg Co, manufacturers of auto accessories. New firm plans construction of the Kari-Keene Coupe monoplane.

Keystone Aircraft Corp, Bristol, PA, develops the "sign-carrier," a modification of the LB-6 bomber with a neon flashing sign installed in lower wing.

Lockheed Aircraft Co produces the Air Express for Western Airlines.

Loening Aero Engineering Corp becomes a division of the Keystone Aircraft Corp Grover Loening leaves the company and sets up a small experimental laboratory in New York called Loening Laboratories.

Mahoney-Ryan Aircraft Corp, St Louis, MO, is incorporated with a fully subscribed capital stock of $1,500,000, as a subsidiary of the B F Mahoney Aircraft Corp of San Diego.

Glenn L Martin Co sells its plant in Cleveland and moves to Baltimore, MD. Company is reincorporated under laws of Maryland as The Glenn L Martin Co. During year, Martin delivers the last of 102 Model T4N-1 planes to the Navy and develops an experimental dive bomber, Model XT5N-1.

The Metal Aircraft Corp is formed at Cincinnati to take over assets of the Halpin development and manufacture Halpin's all-metal monoplane, the Flamingo.

Moreland Aircraft, Inc, is incorporated at Inglewood, CA, to build a three-place monoplane.

Moth Aircraft Corp, New York, is established to manufacture under license the DH Moth and DH Gypsy engines.

New Standard Aircraft Corp is formed in Paterson, NJ, when Ivan R Gates resigns as President of Gates-Day Aircraft Corp. Charles L Auger, Jr, is elected President of new firm, and Charles H Day, Vice-President and Chief Engineer.

Pacer Aircraft Corp, with offices at Perth Amboy and plant at Fords, NJ, introduces a four-place monoplane.

Paramount Aircraft Corp is incorporated at Saginaw, MI, and produces the four-place Cabinaire biplane.

Pennsylvania Aircraft Syndicate, Ltd, is organized at Philadelphia to develop some radically new aircraft designs.

Pratt & Whitney, whose sales have risen from nothing in 1925 to $7,900,000 in October of 1928, becomes a part of United Aircraft & Transport Corp.

Red Bird Aircraft Co, Oklahoma City, OK, is incorporated with a capital stock of $400,000 to build several different model biplanes and cabin monoplanes.

Richmond Airways, Staten Island, NY, develops a five-place open-cockpit flying boat designated the Seahawk.

Schmuck Aircraft Co, with a sales organization called Monarch Aerial Corp, is established at Los Angeles to build the Monarch three-place biplane.

Sikorsky Mfg Corp is taken over by United Aircraft & Transport Co and is now known as Sikorsky Aviation Corp, Division of United Aircraft & Transport Co. New company, with a plant at Bridgeport, CT, and with Igor Sikorsky as Vice-President and Engineer, enters into an agreement with the Curtiss Flying Service and Curtiss Export Co to handle sales of Sikorsky products.

Simplex Aircraft Corp is incorporated at Defiance, OH. Company produces the Red Arrow two-place monoplane.

Spartan Aircraft Co, Inc, is established at Tulsa, OK, to build the C-3 biplane and to act as representatives of J Walter & Co, Prague, Czechoslovakia, for the Walter 120-hp radial engine in this country.

Starling Aircraft Co, Minneapolis, is established to build the Starling three-place biplane designed by Orville Hickman.

Stout Metal Airplane Co, Division of Ford Motor Co, continues to produce ten- and twelve-passenger Ford trimotors.

O W Timm Airplane Corp introduces the Collegiate, a high-wing two-place trainer.

Towle Aircraft Corp is incorporated at Detroit. Company produces the six-eight-passenger twin-engined amphibian monoplane.

United Aircraft & Transport Co is formed in New York under sponsorship of the National City Bank to acquire control of certain aircraft, engine, and propeller manufacturing companies.

Vulcan Aircraft Co, Portsmouth, OH, is incorporated with a capital of $1,000,000 to produce the American Moth two-place light monoplane.

Wallace Aircraft Co is formed at Chicago to manufacture the C-2 Touroplane designed by Stanley Wallace.

Whittelsey Mfg Co, Inc, Bridgeport, CT, is incorporated to produce the Avro Avian biplane in America under license from A V Roe & Co, Ltd, of England.

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January 1-7 — Major Carl Spaatz, US Army Air Corps, with Capt Ira C Eaker as relief pilot, and a crew of three, sets a refueling endurance record of 150 hr, 40 min, 15 sec, in the Fokker Army transport Question Mark, flying over Los Angeles Airport.

January 2 — "Bobbie" Trout sets a new endurance record for women of 12 hr, 11 min, flying the Golden Eagle monoplane at Los Angeles.

January 9 — Pan American Airways, Inc, opens an airmail route between Miami, FL, and San Juan, Puerto Rico.

January 12 — First US airmail stamped envelopes go on sale.

January 30 — Eleanor Smith establishes a new endurance record for women of 13 hr, 16 min, flying a Brunner-Winkle biplane at New York.

February 4-5 — Capt Frank Hawks and Oscar E Grubb fly nonstop from Los Angeles to New York in a Pratt & Whitney Wasp-powered Lockheed, setting a new West-East record of 18 hr, 21 min, 59 sec.

February 8 — Col Charles A Lindbergh takes off from USS Saratoga in an F 3B-1 fighter plane and flies to Panama from position 90 miles off shore.

February 11 — "Bobbie" Trout, flying at Los Angeles, establishes a new endurance record for women of 17 hr, 5 min, 37 sec.

February 12 — Engagement of Miss Anne Morrow to Col Charles A Lindbergh is announced.

February 15-23 — Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce holds National Air Show at St Louis.

February 21 — Col Charles A Lindbergh is appointed Technical Advisor to the Aeronautics Branch of the Department of Commerce.

February 27 — Former Secretary of War Dwight Davis presents the Distinguished Flying Cross, awarded by Congress, to Orville Wright and, posthumously, to his brother Wilbur.

February 27 — Lt Harry Johnson, US Army Air Corps, assigned to Wright Field for the purpose of attempting high-altitude flights, reaches an elevation of 35,611 ft

March 9 — Col Charles A Lindbergh inaugurates the first direct mail route to Mexico City, carrying 13 passengers on a trip from Brownsville, TX.

March 10 — David S Ingalls, of Cleveland, is appointed Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Aeronautics to succeed Edward P Warner.

March 12 — Rear Adm W A Moffett is reappointed Chief of Bureau of Aeronautics, US Navy.

March 16-17 — Mrs Louise McPhetridge Thadden sets a new endurance record for women of 22 hr, 3 min, 12 sec, flying a Hispano-Suiza-powered Travel Air.

April 6 — Major Carl Spaatz, Capt Ira C. Eaker, 1st Lt Harry A Halverson, 2nd Lt Elwood R Quesada, and Staff Sgt Roy W Hooe, of the US Army Air Corps, are awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for achieving the extraordinary duration flight of January 1-7.

April 21 — President Hoover appoints William P MaCracken, Edward P Warner, and Harry F Guggenheim to the three additional posts created by Congress on the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

April 23-24 — Eleanor Smith, 17-year-old girl pilot, again establishes a new endurance record for women by remaining in the air 26 hr, 21 min, 32 sec, over Los Angeles in a Wright Whirlwind-powered Bellanca.

May — Lt "Al" Williams, US Navy, is awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for his experimental inverted flights carried on during March, 1928.

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May 8 — Lt Apollo Soucek, US Navy, establishes a new world's altitude record of 39,140 ft, flying the Wright Apache over Anacostia, DC.

May 15-18 — First Annual Airport Convention is held at Cleveland under the auspices of the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce. 3

May 19-26 — R L Robbins and James Kelly set a new refueling flight endurance record of 172 hr, 32 min, 1 sec, in a Wright-powered Ryan Brougham at Fort Worth, TX.

May 27 — Col Charles A Lindbergh and Miss Anne Morrow are married at Englewood, NJ.

May 28 — Marvel Crosson sets a new altitude record for women at Los Angeles, when she reaches a height of 24,000 ft.

June 9 — Lt Apollo Soucek sets a new world's altitude record for seaplanes of 38,560 ft with the Wright Apache.

June 10 — Start of the first Michigan Air Tour.

June 11 — Daniel Guggenheim receives the first Spirit of St Louis Medal, awarded by The American Society of Mechanical Engineers for exceptional services to aeronautics.

June 19 — Tests of airplanes built by twelve manufacturers competing for the Safety Award of $100,000 offered by the Guggenheim Fund are begun.

June 27-29 — Capt Frank Hawks breaks transcontinental speed records from East to West and West to East by flying from Roosevelt Field, LI, to Los Angeles, in 19 hr, 10 min, 32 sec, and making the return trip in 17 hr, 38 min, 17 sec.

June 29-July 6 — B K Newcomb and R L Mitchell set a refueling duration record of 174 hr, 59 sec, in a Stinson Detroiter at Cleveland.

July 1 — Airworthiness Requirements for Aircraft, as set forth by the Aeronautics Branch, Department of Commerce, become effective.

July 2-12 — L W Mendell and R B Reinhart, flying a Wright-powered Buhl monoplane, establish a new refueling endurance record of 246 hr, 44 min, at Culver City, CA.

July 7 — Transcontinental Air Transport, Inc, inaugurates 48-hour combined rail and air passenger service from coast to coast. Col Charles A Lindbergh flies first plane over the route.

July 8-9 — Roger Williams and Capt Lewis A Yancey make transcontinental flight from Old Orchard, ME, to Santander, Spain, in a Wright-powered Bellanca; 3,400 miles in 30.5 hr

July 13-30 — Dale Jackson and Forrest O'Brien set new refueling duration record of 420 hr, 17 min, flying a Challenger-powered Curtiss Robin monoplane, at St Louis.

August 15-20 — Spokane Sun God, a Wright-powered Buhl monoplane, piloted by N B Mamer and Art Walker, makes a nonstop round trip from Spokane, WA, to New York City and return in 115 hr, 45 min, 10 sec., being refueled in the air at eleven points along the route.

August 24-September 2 — National Air Races and Aeronautical Exposition are held at Cleveland.

August — First Thompson Trophy Race is won by Douglas Davis, who flies his Travel Air Mystery Ship over the 50-mile course at an average speed of 194.9 mph.

August 27 — Samuel D Heron, well-known power-plant engineer of the Matériel Division of the Air Corps at Wright Field, is awarded the Manly Medal for achievement in aeronautical engineering for 1928, at the Society of Automotive Engineers Dinner held in Cleveland.

August 27 — Lt C M Bolster, US Navy, is transferred from the airship Los Angeles by plane to Municipal Airport at Cleveland, marking the first time a passenger has ever been conveyed by plane from an airship to the ground.

September 1 — Aeronautics Branch, Department of Commerce, rules that all licensed American aircraft operated in foreign air commerce must display on wings and rudder the International symbol "N" followed by symbols designated by Government.

September 1 — New Department of Commerce Regulations concerning transport pilots become effective.

September 2 — 2nd Lt Paul B Wurtswith, US Army Air Corps, wins the John L Mitchell Trophy Race held during the National Air Races at Cleveland, with an average speed of 152.17 mph.

September 7-15 — Aircraft Exhibit of 1929 held in the Coliseum at Chicago.

September 20 — Pan American Airways, Inc, opens airmail service between Miami and Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana.

September 24 — Lt James H Doolittle makes first public demonstration of three blind-flying instruments, flying from Mitchel Field, LI, for 15 miles and return for a perfect landing, in a Consolidated airplane.

October 1 — Major Clarence M Young takes office as Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Aeronautics to succeed William P MacCracken, who recently resigned.

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October 5-21 — National Air Tour, starting from Detroit and landing at 21 cities, is won by John Livingston, flying a Wright-powered Waco.

October 22 — U F Diteman is lost at sea in attempted transatlantic flight to London.

October 31 — Guggenheim Safe Aircraft Competition closes.

November 11 — A Department of Licensing and Inspection and Department of Aeronautic Development is formed within the Aeronautics Branch of the Department of Commerce.

November 22 — Amelia Earhart, flying a Pratt & Whitney-powered Lockheed Vega, establishes a new speed record for women of 184.17 mph.

November 28-29 — Comdr Richard E Byrd, with Bert Balchen, Harold June, and Capt A C McKinley, flies over the South Pole.

November 29 — The first pursuit airplane built to incorporate the high-temperature liquid-cooling feature, first suggested by S D Heron and so long under experimental development at Wright Field, is completed by the Curtiss Company and flown to Wright Field for flight testing.

December 31 — Daniel Guggenheim Fund for the Promotion of Aeronautics closes its activities.

Robert Collier Trophy for 1929 is awarded to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics for development of cowling for radial air-cooled engines.

The Daniel Guggenheim Medal, established this year as an annual award to the individual making the most notable contribution to the advancement of aeronautics, is awarded to Orville Wright.

Some of the outstanding developments in aviation this year include: design and construction of practical wing flaps, as used on the prize-winning Curtiss Tanager and other planes entered in the Guggenheim safety competition contest; radio-echo altimeter developed by the US Bureau of Standards; NACA cowling; and the high-temperature liquid-cooling system designed by the Matériel Division, Army Air Corps.

Naval Aviators fly a total of 205,421 hr this year, the average pilot flying about 216 hr or about 19% more than last year.

6,034 airplanes, having a total value of $71,200,000, are produced this year.


Advance Aircraft Co, Troy, OH, changes its name to Waco Aircraft Corp.

Aeromarine-Klemm Corp is organized in New York with plant at Keyport, NJ, to manufacture the German-designed Klemm low-wing monoplane in USA. Inglis M Uppercu is President, and Vincent Burnelli is Vice-President.

Allison Airplane Co (Alco) produces the Junior Coupe, a single-seater cabin monoplane, at Lawrence, KS.

Alexander Aircraft Co, Colorado Springs, CO, builds four popular commercial models, the Eaglerock, Model 22 Bullet, and the Models 32 and 35 cabin monoplanes.

Alliance Aircraft Corp, Alliance, OH, designs and produces a three-place biplane called the Argo.

Aviation Corp, a holding company in New York, gains control of the Fairchild Aviation Corp, which includes the Fairchild Airplane Mfg Corp, Fairchild Aerial Camera Corp, Fairchild Aerial Surveys, Inc, Fairchild Engine Corp, S M Fairchild Flying Corp, and Fairchild Aircraft Ltd of Canada.

Berliner-Joyce Aircraft Corp is incorporated at Baltimore and takes over entire assets of Berliner Aircraft Co. The new firm, of which H A Berliner is Vice-President, starts work on new designs on Navy and Army contracts.

B/J Aircraft Corp, Division of North American Aviation, comes into being when North American Aviation acquires the Berliner-Joyce Aircraft Corp Officers are Thomas A Morgan, President; Temple N Joyce and Thomas B Doe, Vice-Presidents. Company produces the XFJ-1 fighter for the Navy and the XP-16 and XO-31 for the Army.

Boeing Airplane Co becomes a part of United Aircraft & Transport Co. Firm builds the 80-A all-metal "Pullman of the air" twelve-passenger monoplane. Also introduces the Monomail transport, the first to adopt the retractable landing gear.

Bourdon Aircraft Corp, Hillsgrove, RI, manufactures the Kitty Hawk three-place biplane.

Commercial Aircraft Corp, Los Angeles, designs a six-passenger cabin biplane designated the C-1 Sunbeam.

Consolidated Aircraft Corp purchases the Thomas-Morse Aircraft Co of Ithaca, NY, moving the latter to Buffalo where it functions as a separate unit of Consolidated. Consolidated produces the Admiral Naval flying boat and a 20-passenger commercial version of this plane designated the Commodore.

Crosley Aircraft Co, a subsidiary of Crosley Radio Corp, is established at Sharonville, OH, and builds two types of monoplanes, Models C-1 and C-2.

Curtiss-Wright Corp is formed in New York to take over the Curtiss Aeroplane & Motor Co, and the Wright Aeronautical Corp, as well as the Curtiss-Caproni Corp, Curtiss-Robertson Airplane Mfg Co, Keystone Aircraft Corp, Moth Aircraft Corp, Travel Air Co, and the Curtiss-Wright Flying Service, which includes various organizations set up to market products, conduct schools, operate airports, etc.

Curtiss-Caproni Corp is established at Baltimore, where multimotored aircraft designed by Gianni Caproni are being built.

Davis Aircraft Corp is formed at Richmond, IN, to take over the Vulcan Aircraft Co of Portsmouth, OH, manufacturers of the American Moth. New company builds the Davis V-3 monoplane.

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Detroit Aircraft Corp, a holding company established in Detroit, takes over Lockheed Aircraft Corp, Ryan Aircraft Corp, Eastman Aircraft Corp, Blackburn Aircraft Corp, Aircraft Development Corp, Marine Aircraft Corp, and the Winton Aviation Corp, all of which are now known as Divisions of the Detroit Aircraft Corp

Douglas Aircraft Co, Inc, builds a large new factory at Clover Field, Santa Monica, CA, to take care of its rapidly expanding business.

Eastman Aircraft Corp, Division of Detroit Aircraft Corp, builds the Sea Rover and Sea Pirate flying boats.

Eberhart Airplane & Motor Co, Inc, Buffalo, NY, in addition to the manufacture of aircraft, undertakes experimental work for Army to build various airplane armament components.

Emsco Aircraft Corp, Downey, CA produces the Challenger and Cirrus monoplanes.

Fairchild Airplane Mfg Co takes over the Kreider-Reisner Aircraft Co of Hagerstown, MD, and under the Fairchild name continues to manufacture their Challenger line of biplanes.

Fleet Aircraft Co (Division of Consolidated Aircraft Corp), Buffalo, is now producing two models of the famous Fleet biplanes.

Fokker Aircraft Corp of America, previously known as Atlantic Aircraft Corp, increases its factory space at Teterboro, NJ, leases building at Passaic, NJ, and builds new plant at Glendale, WV; also begins construction of new factory at Los Angeles.

Gates Aircraft Corp is incorporated at Corona, LI, by Ivan R Gates, former partner of Charles Day in the Gates-Day Aircraft Corp

Golden Eagle Aircraft Corp, incorporated at Inglewood, CA builds three models: the Golden Eagle, Chief, and Gypsy monoplanes

Grumman Engineering Corp is organized at Baldwin, LI, to produce a practical aircraft float for Navy scouting planes.

Hamilton Metal Plane Co, Milwaukee, becomes a part of the Boeing Airplane Co and is now known as the Hamilton Metal Plane Division of the Boeing Airplane Co

Invincible Aircraft Corp is formed at Manitowoc, WI, by the Invincible Metal Furniture Co to build a four-place cabin monoplane.

Keystone Aircraft Corp adds 100,000 sq ft of floor space to its plant at Bristol, PA.

Knoll Aircraft Corp is organized at Wichita, KS, to build the KN-1 and KN-3 four-place cabin biplanes.

Joseph Kreutzer Corp, Los Angeles, builds a three-engined six-place cabin monoplane called the Air Coach.

Mahoney-Ryan Corp merges with Detroit Aircraft Corp

The Glenn L Martin Co moves into its new plant at Middle River, Baltimore County, MD, where Navy contracts on the XTSN-1 and XT6N-1 dive bombers, Model XPZN-1, P3N-1 and PM-1 flying boats are carried out.

McCarthy Aircraft Co, Portland, MI, is formed by George McCarthy, one of former organizers of McCarthy Aeronautical Engineering Co of Grand Rapids and Detroit.

Miami Aircraft Corp is established at Hialeah, FL, to produce a five-place amphibian monoplane called the Miami Maid.

Mono-Aircraft, Inc, Moline, IL, is organized by D A Luscombe, A Love, Floyd Augustine, and W C Ferguson to enter aircraft market with four model monoplanes: the Monocoupe, Monoprep, Monosport, and Monocoach.

Moth Aircraft Corp becomes a Division of Curtiss-Wright Corp

Nicholas-Beazley, an aircraft supply house of Marshall, MO, enters the aircraft construction field with the Barling NB-3.

Northrop Aviation Corp, Division of United Aircraft & Transport Co, comes into being when United Aircraft absorbs the Avion Corp, organized earlier in the year by John K Northrop and W K Kay.

Ogden Aeronautical Corp is incorporated under laws of Nevada at Inglewood, CA to produce a three-engined cabin monoplane designated Osprey.

Overcashier Aircraft Co, Inc, Detroit, introduces the three-place cabin Overcashier monoplane.

Parks Aircraft, Inc, is formed as a subsidiary of Parks Air Line, owners and operators of Parks Airport and Parks Air College, to manufacture three-place open biplanes.

Pitcairn Autogiro Co, a subsidiary of Pitcairn Aircraft, Inc, is established to manufacture the Cierva Autogiro in the USA. under license from abroad.

Pittsburgh Metal Airplane Co is incorporated at Pittsburgh, PA, to produce the T-1 and T-2 Thaden monoplanes. New firm takes over the Thaden Co of San Francisco.

St Louis Aircraft Corp, a subsidiary of the St Louis Car Co, introduces the Cardinal two-place cabin monoplane at the Detroit Air Show.

Sikorsky Aviation Corp, now a Division of United Aircraft & Transport Co, is producing the S-35, S-36, and S-37 multi-motored transports.

Star Aircraft Co, Bartlesville, OK builds the Cavalier two-place cabin monoplane.

Stinson Aircraft Corp, Detroit, merges with the Cord Corp, which also controls Lycoming engine manufacturing company.

Stout Metal Airplane Co, Division of Ford Motor Co, enlarges its plant at Dearborn, MI, and reaches a production basis of four complete Ford trimotor monoplanes per week.

O E Szekely Corp, Holland, MI, introduces a single-seater low-wing monoplane called the Flying Dutchman.

Taylor Bros Aircraft Corp is formed at Bradford, PA, by C Taylor and William Piper, to manufacture a two-place high-wing monoplane known as the Chummy.

Thomas-Morse Aircraft Corp, Division of Consolidated Aircraft Corp, continues development of the O-6B all-metal observation plane.

Trella Aircraft, Detroit, builds a two-place biplane known as the Speedster.

United Aircraft & Transport Co, Inc, now controls the following: Boeing Airplane Co; Chance Vought Corp; Hamilton Metalplane Co; Stearman Aircraft Corp; Sikorsky Aircraft Corp; Northrop Aviation Corp; Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Corp; Canadian Pratt & Whitney Aircraft, Ltd; Boeing Aircraft of Canada, Ltd; Boeing Air Transport, Inc; Boeing School of Aeronautics; United Aircraft Exports, Inc; Pacific Air Transport; and Stout Airlines, Inc.

Verville Aircraft Co, Detroit, builds the Air Coach designed by C E Verville.

Wallace Aircraft Co is acquired by American Eagle Aircraft Corp and is now known as the Wallace Aircraft Co, Division of American Eagle Aircraft Corp

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January 6 — $100,000 prize in the Guggenheim Safe Aircraft Competition is awarded to the Curtiss Tanager.

January 25 — Amendment to Air Commerce Regulations sets 500 ft as minimum altitude at which aircraft may fly except when landing or taking off.

February 8 — Air Commerce Regulations Amendment requires transport and limited commercial pilots carrying passengers to have special authority from the Department.

February 15 — Lt James H Doolittle resigns from the Army Air Corps to accept a position with Shell Oil Company.

February 28 — George W Haldeman establishes an altitude record for commercial airplanes of 30,453 ft, in a Wright Whirlwind-powered Bellanca Pacemaker, at Wilmington.

March 10 — Eleanor Smith establishes women's altitude record of 27,418 ft at Valley Stream, LI, NY.

April 6 — Capt Frank M Hawks is towed in a glider from San Diego to New York, a distance of 2,860 miles, in 36 hr, 47 min of flying time.

April 8 — Orville Wright is presented with the first Daniel Guggenheim Medal for Aeronautics for 1929.

April 20 — Col and Mrs Charles A Lindbergh, flying a Pratt & Whitney Wasp-powered Lockheed Sirius, making a one-stop flight from Los Angeles to New York in 14 hr, 23 min, 27 sec flying time, establish unofficial record.

April 29 — President Hoover signs McNary-Watres Act.

May 3-11 — New York Aircraft Salon is held at Madison Square Garden under the direction of the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce.

May 9 — Dr Ludwig Prandtl awarded 1930 Daniel Guggenheim Medal for his work in aerodynamics.

May 15 — Air Commerce Regulations governing scheduled operation of interstate passenger air transport services become effective.

May 27 — Col Roscoe Turner in a Wasp-powered Lockheed Vega flies from New York to Los Angeles in total elapsed time of 18 hr, 43 min, 34 sec, setting a new record for East-West flight.

May 30 — Glenn H Curtiss flies from Albany to New York in commemoration of 20th anniversary of 1910 flight.

June 4 — Apollo Soucek sets a world altitude record of 43,166 ft in a Wright Apache at Anacostia, DC.

June 11 — John and Kenneth Hunter begin refueling-endurance flight over Chicago, which breaks all records when they remain in the air for 553 hr, 41 min, 30 sec.

June 16 — Elmer A Sperry, founder of Sperry Gyroscope Company, Inc, dies at Brooklyn, NY.

June 17-18 — W S Brock and E F Schlee make round-trip transcontinental flight from Jacksonville, FL, to San Diego, CA. and return, in total elapsed time of 31 hr, 57 min.

June 20-21 — Randolph Field, Army Air Corps field named in honor of Capt William E Randolph, who was killed in an airplane crash in 1928, is dedicated at San Antonio, TX.

June 25 — Amelia Earhart, flying a Lockheed Vega, sets a speed record for women over a 100-kilometer course of 174.9 mph at Detroit.

July 6 — Amelia Earhart again breaks speed record for women by flying at 181.8 mph over a 3-kilometer course at Detroit.

July 21 — Forrest O'Brien and Dale Jackson begin endurance flight at St Louis which breaks record established by Hunter brothers a few days earlier. They remain aloft 647 hr, 28 min, ,30 sec.

July 23 — Glenn H Curtiss, pioneer aviator, dies at Buffalo.

July 25 — Chance M Vought, well-known aircraft designer, dies at Southampton, LI, NY.

August 5 — Florence Barnes, in a Wright-powered Travel Air, establishes speed record for women of 196.19 mph.

August 6 — Capt Frank M Hawks, flying a Travel Air Mystery S, flies from New York to Los Angeles in 14 hr, 50 min, 43 sec elapsed time, establishing new record for East-West flight.

August 13 — Capt Frank M Hawks sets new solo record for West-East flight when he flies from Los Angeles to New York in 12 hr, 25 min, 3 sec elapsed time.

August 23-September 1 — National Air Races are held at Chicago.

September — Thompson Trophy Race is won by Charles W ("Speed") Holman flying a Wasp Jr-powered Laird Solution biplane over the 100-mile course at 201.9 mph average speed.

September 28 — Daniel Guggenheim dies at his home, Port Washington, LI.

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November 6 — The Congressional Medal of Honor is presented to Edward V Rickenbacker, foremost American flier during World War, by Hon F Trubee Davison, Assistant Secretary of War for Aeronautics.

December 13 — The Distinguished Flying Cross is awarded posthumously to the late Capt Arthur Page (killed at Chicago Air Races) for his blind flight made from Omaha to Anacostia on July 21, 1930.

December 31 — Airworthiness Requirements for Aircraft Components and Accessories become effective.

Robert Collier Trophy for 1930 is awarded to Harold F Pitcairn and his associates for their development and application of the autogiro. (See illus)

374,935 passengers are carried by the domestic air lines this year.

Naval Aircraft fly 266,984 hr this year with but 14 fatal accidents and 18 fatalities.

Noteworthy developments in the aircraft industry this year include general acceptance and application of the NACA cowling; Sperry Gyroscope's "Gyro Horizon"; the trend toward substitution of metal for wood in aircraft structures; and the development of the sound-locator acoustic system for detection of aircraft in flight.


Boeing Airplane Co, Division of the United Aircraft & Transport Co, builds an experimental bomber monoplane, the well-known F3B-1, and the Monomail, single-engined transport.

Buckley Aircraft Co, with William B Stout as Chairman of the Board and Consulting Engineer, is formed at Wichita, KS, to build the Witchcraft four-place monoplane.

Chevrolet Aircraft Corp of Indiana (owned by The Glenn L Martin Co) transfers its assets to Chevrolet Aircraft Corp of Maryland.

Curtiss-Wright Corp elects Thomas A Morgan as President. Guy Vaughn replaces Charles Lawrence as President of Wright Aeronautical Corp

Curtiss-Robertson Airplane Mfg Co and the Travel Air Co are combined under the name of Curtiss-Wright Airplane Co, with Travel Air operating as the Travel Air Division. Walter H Beech is President, and Ralph S Damon and W B Robertson are Vice-Presidents of the company. The Junior, Light Sport, Sport Trainer, Kingbird, Sedan, and 14C are models built this year.

Douglas Aircraft Co, Inc, introduces the twin-engined six-eight-place Dolphin.

Earl Aviation Corp, Los Angeles, produces the Populair two-place light monoplane. Engineers Aircraft Corp, Stamford, CT, builds the EAC-I light monoplane.

Fokker Aircraft Corp becomes a subsidiary of General Aviation Corp, and M Schoonmaker is elected President; E V Rickenbacker, Director of Sales; and A H G Fokker, Director of Engineering.

Granville Bros Aircraft Corp, Springfield, Mass., is producing a low-wing racing monoplane called the Gee-Bee, which wins second place in the All-American Derby this year.

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Grumman Engineering Corp turns to the manufacture of truck bodies and trailers, while designers continue work on development of the Model B aircraft float.

Inland Aviation Corp, Kansas City, KS, builds three models, the Sport, Sportster, and Super-Sport, of a two-place open-cockpit monoplane.

Ireland Aircraft Co, now known as Amphibians, Inc, produces the Neptune and Privateer amphibian flying boats.

Lenart Aircraft Co is established at Dowagiac, MI.

The Glenn L Martin Co is awarded Navy contract for the design and construction of 25 Model PM-2 twin-engined biplane flying boats. Company also delivers the first of the Model PN-1 patrol bomber and XT6N-1 torpedo plane this year.

Northrop Aviation Corp, Division of United Aircraft & Transport Co, builds the six-place low-wing Alpha monoplane and the Beta.

Pheasant Aircraft Co, Inc, Fond du Lac, WI, produces the Traveller, single-seater cabin monoplane.

Prest Airplanes & Motors, a firm established in 1923 by Clarence O Prest for the sale of war surplus aircraft, produces a light monoplane designated Baby Pursuit.

Sullivan Aircraft Mfg Co, Wichita, KS, builds a three-place low-wing cabin monoplane, Model K-3.

Swanson Aircraft Co, Inc, is incorporated at Hopewell, VA, by Swen S Swanson to manufacture the Swanson coupe.

Uppercu-Burnelli Corp is formed in New York, with plant at Keyport, NJ, to develop the famous aircraft designs of Vincent Burnelli.

Viking Flying Boat Co, New Haven, CT, replaces Bourdon Aircraft Co and acquires rights to build the FBA Schreck flying boat in USA.


January — Air Commerce Regulations governing alterations and repairs to licensed aircraft become effective.

January 4-9 — Evelyn Trout and Edna May Cooper, flying a Curtiss Robin, establish women's refueling-duration record of 123 hr at Los Angeles.

January 7-10 — Mrs Beryl Hart and Lt William S MacLaren are lost at sea between Bermuda and Azores on an attempt to fly the Atlantic.

February 14 — Ruth Nichols, in a Lockheed Vega powered with a Packard Diesel engine, establishes unofficial world altitude record for Diesel-powered planes of 19,928 ft at Floyd Bennett Field, NY.

February 20 — International Convention on Commercial Aviation is ratified by US Senate.

March 4 — More than $100,000,000 is appropriated by Congress for military, Naval, and commercial aviation for the coming year.

March 6 — Ruth Nichols, in a Wasp-powered Lockheed Vega, establishes women's altitude record of 28,743 ft at Jersey City Airport, NJ.

March 31 — Capt Albert W Stevens is awarded the Mackay Trophy for 1929 in recognition of his high-altitude photography.

March 31 — Knute Rockne, famous football coach of Notre Dame University, is killed in an airplane crash near Bozar, KS.

April 8 — Amelia Earhart establishes an autogiro altitude record of 18,415 ft in a Whirlwind-powered Pitcairn at Willow Grove, PA.

April 9 — Eleanor Smith flies to an unofficial altitude of 32,500 ft over New York City.

April 11-19 — National Aircraft Show is held at Detroit.

April 13 — Ruth Nichols sets a women's speed record of 210.636 mph in a Lockheed Vega at Carleton, MI.

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May 10 — Dr Frederick W Lancaster is awarded the third Daniel Guggenheim Medal for his contributions to aerodynamics.

May 14 — A radio intercommunication development, light enough in weight to permit installation in pursuit planes, is developed by Western Electric Co and successfully tested in three airplanes at Wright Field.

May 21-30 — US Army Air Corps demonstrates its full aerial strength by maneuvers of 600 planes, flying approximately 1,000,000 plane-miles without major accident over Chicago, New York, Boston, and Washington.

May 28 — Lt Walter Lees and Ens F A Brossy, USNR, establish world's record for an endurance flight without refueling of 84 hr, 33 min, flying a Packard Diesel-powered Bellanca landplane at Jacksonville, FL.

May 31 — A pilotless monoplane is successfully flown by radio control from another plane at Houston, TX.

June 23-July 1 — Wiley Post and Harold Gatty lower the world's girdling record to 8 days, 15 hr, 51 min, flying the Lockheed Winnie Mae from New York to New York over a circuitous route of 15,128 miles.

July 25 — Harry L Russell, flying a Ford trimotor, wins the Ford Reliability Trophy in the National Air Tour.

July 27-August 9 — Parker Cramer and Oliver Pacquette are lost at sea in an attempted transatlantic flight from Detroit to Denmark.

July 28-30 — Russell N Boardman and John Polando establish a distance record of 5,011.8 miles when they fly a Wright-powered Bellanca CH from Floyd Bennett Field, Brooklyn, to Istanbul, Turkey, in 49 hr, 20 min.

July 29-August 26 — Col and Mrs Charles A Lindbergh, in their Cyclone-powered Sirius seaplane, fly from North Beach, NY, to Tokyo, Japan, via Canada, Alaska, and Siberia.

August 8 — The Akron, Navy's newest dirigible, is christened by Mrs Herbert Hoover at Akron, OH..

August 13 — Capt Frank M Hawks flies from Chicago to New York in 3 hr, 26 min.

August 29-September 7 — National Air Races are held in Cleveland.

September — Thompson Trophy Race is won by Lowell Bayles in a Wasp Jr-powered Gee-Bee Super-Sportster monoplane, flying the 100-mile course at an average speed of 236.23 mph.

September 4 — James H Doolittle establishes a new trans-continental record, flying from Burbank, CA to Newark, NJ, in 11 hr, 16 min elapsed time, including three stops.

September 23 — Lt M Pride, US Navy, lands an autogiro aboard USS Langley.

October 4-5 — $25,000 prize offered by Japanese newspaper Asahi is won by Hugh Herndon, Jr, and Clyde Pangborn when they make first nonstop flight from Japan to US, flying 41 hr, 13 min, from Tokyo to Wenatchee, WA.

October 17 — Hugh Herndon, Jr, and Clyde Pangborn complete their flight around the world started on July 28.

October 24-25 — Ruth Nichols, flying a Lockheed Vega, establishes women's distance record of 1,977.6 miles from Oakland, CA, to Louisville, KY.

November 2 — Randolph Field, the Army Air Corps' $10,000,000 training center at San Antonio, TX, is completed and goes into commission.

November 17 — Col Charles A Lindbergh flies Pan American Airways' American Clipper (a Sikorsky amphibian) on her maiden flight from Miami to Cienfuegos, to inaugurate the direct Cuba-to-South America service.

December 1 — Lowell R Bayles. flying a Wasp-powered Gee-Bee Sportster, establishes an American speed record of 281.75 mph at Detroit.

December 19 — Major Gen Benjamin D Foulois becomes Chief of Army Air Corps.

Robert Collier Trophy for 1931 is awarded to Packard Motor Car Company in recognition of its development of the Diesel engine for airplanes.

One of major developments in aircraft this year is the experiment carried out by Dr Stephen Zand in soundproofing transport airplanes.


Alexander Aircraft Co, Division of Alexander Industries, Inc, succumbs to the depression.

American Aeronautical Corp, manufacturer of Savoia-Marchetti flying boats in this country, is taken over by the Dayton Airplane Engine Co.

American Airplane & Engine Corp is formed when the Aviation Corp takes over the Fairchild Airplane & Mfg Co and the Fairchild Engine Corp, combining the two companies. Airplanes and engines built by the new company will be designated the Pilgrim and Ranger, respectively. American Aviation Corp relinquishes control to Fairchild Aviation Corp of other Fairchild subsidiaries held for past 2 years.

American Eagle-Lincoln Aircraft Corp, Fairfax Airport, Kansas City, KS, is formed by merger between American Eagle Aircraft and Lincoln Aircraft corporations.

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Bird Aircraft Corp, Glendale, CA, formerly known as Brunner-Winkle Aircraft Corp, continues to manufacture the line of Bird biplanes.

Boeing Airplane Co, Division of the United Aircraft & Transport Co, builds the F3B-1 Army pursuit plane, in addition to producing the popular Monomail transport.

Buhl Aircraft Co builds the Buhl Pup. Company acquires rights to build an autogiro, which it expects to introduce early next year.

Cain Aircraft Corp is established at Detroit to build a two-place sport monoplane.

Chevrolet Aircraft Corp of Maryland (Martin-owned) changes its name to the Glenn L Martin Motors Co.

Detroit Aircraft Corp succumbs to the financial depression, after having first transferred its entire manufacturing division to the Lockheed plant.

Fairchild Aviation Corp, under the presidency of Sherman M Fairchild, once again becomes an independent organization when the Aviation Corp relinquishes control. Fairchild now controls the Kreider-Reisner Aircraft Corp; Fairchild Aircraft Ltd of Canada: Fairchild Aerial Camera Corp; and Fairchild Aerial Surveys, Inc.

Fokker Aviation Corp of America is renamed the General Aviation Mfg Corp.

Franklin Aircraft Corp, Franklin, PA, builds four models of a two-place light biplane.

Grumman Engineering Corp moves its plant to the abandoned Curtiss Airport in Valley Stream, LI. Company receives contract from Navy to produce 15 Model B floats.

Hamilton Metalplane Div of the Boeing Airplane Co (Division of United Aircraft & Transport Co) suspends aircraft manufacturing activity.

Hammond Aircraft Corp, Ann Arbor, MI, takes over the manufacturing rights of the Parks training biplane, formerly manufactured by the Ryan Division of Detroit Aircraft Corp before the demise of Ryan and Detroit Aircraft.

Irwin Aircraft Co, Watsonville, CA, builds the Model F-A-1 single-seater biplane.

Kellett Aircraft Corp, Philadelphia, of which W Wallace Kellett is President, holds license to build autogiros.

Loughead Bros Aircraft Corp, Los Angeles, produces a twin-engined cabin monoplane designated the Olympic Duo-4, designed by Alden H Loughead, one of the founders of Lockheed Aircraft Co

Lockheed Aircraft Co (Division of Detroit Aircraft Corp) produces the Vega, Speed Vega, Air Express, Sirius, Orion, and Altair.

Loening Laboratories, New York City, develops a small amphibian boat, so arranged that it may be rapidly dismantled and stowed in a water-tight cylinder, for launching from a submarine.

The Glenn L Martin Co is awarded contract by the Navy for the design and construction of twelve dive bombers designated Model BM-1, and later in the year for 16 Model BM-2 dive bombers. Company also completes the PM-2 and XPZM-1 flying boats for Navy.

Metalair Corp (Division of General Aviation Corp), Pittsburgh, is now producing the Thaden T-4 cabin monoplane.

Mono Aircraft Corp, Moline, IL, goes into receivership and files petition to be allowed to sell assets of the company to the Luscombe Co of St Louis.

New Standard Aircraft Corp, Paterson, NJ, liquidates after Charles H Day resigns as President and Chief Engineer. The Farman-Standard Aircraft Corp negotiates to buy all assets of the New Standard Aircraft Corp

Northrop Aircraft Corp, Division of United Aircraft & Transport Co, is consolidated with the Stearman Aircraft Co of Wichita, also controlled by United.

Rawdon-Burnham Co, Wichita, KS, acquires rights from Curtiss-Wright Corp to build the Travel Air R Mystery Monoplane under license agreement.

Rearwin Airplanes, Inc, Kansas City, KS, builds the Ken-Royce biplane and Junior monoplane.

Ryan Aircraft Corp, Division of Detroit Aircraft Corp, is liquidated when Detroit Aircraft succumbs and transfers all of its manufacturing efforts to Lockheed Aircraft plant.

Claude T Ryan organizes the Ryan Aeronautical Co at San Diego, CA, to operate an aircraft repair service and flying school.

Seversky Aircraft Corp is incorporated in February of this year and produces the SEV-3 two-place all-metal amphibian.

Sikorsky Aviation Corp builds the RS-1 amphibian biplane and the XPBS-1 four-engined patrol boat for the Navy.

Solar Aircraft Co, Ltd, San Diego, CA, develops a ten-passenger single-engined sesquiplane.

States Aircraft Corp, Chicago Heights, IL, produces the S-E-5-F two-place light monoplane.

Stinson Aircraft Co builds the trimotored ten-place transport Airliner.

Stout Engineering Laboratories, Dearborn, MI, introduces a light two-place cabin monoplane designated the Skycar.

Taylor Aircraft Co, Bradford, PA, is incorporated to build the Taylor Cub designed by G[sic] Gilbert Taylor. [The name, according to Wikipedia, was Clarence Gilbert Taylor —JLM]

Thomas-Morse Aircraft Corp, Division of Consolidated Aircraft, builds the O-19E observation plane for the Army.

Timm Aircraft Corp, Glendale, CA, is forced to assign its assets to a creditor's committee.

Verville Aircraft Co, Detroit, passes into hands of receivers.

Viking Flying Boat Co, New Haven, CT, elects Robert E Gross as President.

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January 1 — Air Commerce Regulations governing gliders and gliding become effective.

January 7-10 — Fourth Annual All-American Air Races are held at Miami, FL

January 27 — Harold Gatty accepts a post as Chief Air Navigation Research Engineer with Army Air Corps.

February 14 — Ruth Nichols establishes new altitude record for Diesel-powered planes of 19,928 ft at Brooklyn, NY.

April 2-10 — National Aircraft Show is held at Detroit.

May 4 — Daniel Guggenheim Gold Medal for 1932 is awarded to Juan de la Cierva for the development of the autogiro.

May 9 — Capt Albert F Hegenberger, US Army Air Corps, makes the first solo "blind flight" at Wright Field, seeing nothing but the instruments before him from takeoff to landing.

May 13— Louis T Reichers is rescued at sea by steamship 47 miles west of Ireland when he is forced down on an attempted transatlantic flight.

May 20-21 — Amelia Earhart Putnam makes solo flight across the Atlantic from St Johns, New Brunswick, to Londonderry, Ireland, becoming the first woman to accomplish this feat.

June — Mac B Freebirg is awarded the first Air Mail Flyers Medal of Honor as result of safely landing the passengers and crew of a multimotored plane that had lost one of its motors.

June 3 — Stanislaus F Hausner is forced down at sea in his Bellanca Pacemaker on an attempted transatlantic flight and is rescued by a British tanker 8 days later.

June 20 — President Hoover presents the Gold Medal of the National Geographic Society to Amelia Earhart Putnam for her transatlantic flight. Congress also votes her the Distinguished Flying Cross.

July — Major James H Doolittle flies a Lockheed Orion over the 2,900-mile historical routes covered by George Washington in his ground travels.

July 5-6 — James Mattern and Bennett Griffin fly nonstop from Harbor Grace, Newfoundland, to Berlin, Germany, in 18 hr, 4 min.

July 12-13 — Amelia Earhart Putnam establishes a new record for women by flying from Los Angeles to Newark, NJ, in 19 hr, 15 min elapsed time.

July 28 — The Navy provides a display of its air power when it flies 242 Naval aircraft in formation over San Diego, CA .

August — Experimental transmission of weather maps by teletype is begun by the Weather Bureau on a special circuit between Cleveland and Washington.

August 22 — Mrs Louise Thadden and Mrs Francis Marsalis land at Valley Stream, NY, after establishing a new refueling-endurance record for women with a flight of 8 days, 4 hr, 5 min, in a Curtiss Thrush.

August 25 — Amelia Earhart Putnam completes the first nonstop transcontinental flight by a woman in a little over 19 hr. This flight from Los Angeles to Newark also sets a new long-distance flying record for women of 2,435 miles.

August 27-September 5 — National Air Races are held at Cleveland.

August 29 — James G Haizlip establishes transcontinental record by flying from Los Angeles to Floyd Bennett Field, Brooklyn, NY, in 10 hr, 19 min, winning the Bendix Trophy Race.

September 5 — Mrs Mae Haizlip, flying the Wedell-Williams Racer in which her husband had established a transcontinental record a few days earlier, sets a new world's land-plane record for women with an average speed of 252.513 mph over a straight-away course at the National Air Races.

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September — Thompson Trophy Race is won by James H Doolittle, who flies his Gee-Bee Super-Sportster over the 100-mile course at an average speed of 252.68 mph.

September 13 — William Ulbrick, flying a Bellanca Skyrocket with Dr Leon M Pisculli and Edna Newcomer as passengers, is lost at sea in an attempted transatlantic flight from Floyd Bennett Field.

September 21 — Dr Robert A Millikan, world-famous scientist and head of the California Institute of Technology, completes a series of important tests, with the cooperation of the Army Air Corps, on the intensity of cosmic rays at various altitudes.

September 25 — Altitude record for autogiros of 21,500 ft is established by Capt Lewis A Yancey, in a Whirlwind-powered Pitcairn PCA-2 at Boston.

October 15 — Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences is incorporated under the Membership Corporation Law of the State of New York.

November 12 — C S (Casey) Jones establishes the Casey Jones School of Aeronautics, Inc, at Newark, NJ.

November 16 — Air Commerce Regulations are amended to provide the Department of Commerce with closer supervision of transoceanic flights.

November 19 — A national monument, commemorating the Wright Brothers' Flight, is dedicated at Kitty Hawk, NC.

December 1 — Teletypewriter Weather Map Service is inaugurated by Aeronautics Branch, Department of Commerce.

Robert Collier Trophy for 1932 is awarded to Glenn L Martin for the development of an outstanding bi-engined, high-speed, weight-carrying airplane.

Developments of note in the aircraft field this year include a control mechanism for controllable-pitch props, developed under direction of Frank Caldwell; and a new type of liquidometer that gives a direct indication in the pilot's cockpit of the condition of all fuel tanks throughout the airplane.


Aeromarine-Klemm Corp, in hands of receivers, is purchased by the Uppercu Corp

Aircraft Mechanics, Inc, composed principally of former employees of Alexander Aircraft, takes over the latter company's plant at Colorado Springs, CO, and produces the Eaglerock and Alexander Models D-1 and D-2.

Airplane Development Corp produces the V-1 eight-passenger all-metal transport plane designed by Gerald Vultee.

American Aeronautical Corp, Port Washington, LI, goes into receivership.

Amphibians, Inc, Garden City, LI (formerly known as Ireland Aircraft, Inc), builds the Privateer III amphibian monoplane.

B/J Aircraft Corp, Division of North American Aviation, builds the P-16 fighter, OJ-1 observation plane, and XF2J shipboard fighter. Temple N Joyce succeeds Thomas A Morgan as President of the firm.

Beech Aircraft Co, established at Wichita, KS, by Walter H Beech, founder and former President of Travel Air Co, builds a cabin biplane designated the Beechcraft. (See illus p 54)

Boeing Airplane Co, Division of United Aircraft & Transport Co, produces the Y1B-9A all-metal twin-engined monoplane bomber and the P-26 fighter for the Army.

Brewster Aeronautical Corp is formed when equipment, designs, and many of the personnel of the Aviation Division of Brewster & Co, manufacturers of carriages and automobile bodies since 1910, is taken over by James Work.

Brown Metalplane Co, Spokane, WA, builds the Metalark, one- or two-place all-metal monoplane.

Buhl Aircraft Co, St Clair, MI, discontinues the manufacture of aircraft.

Consolidated Aircraft Corp continues production of the Fleet trainer biplane.

Crouch-Bolas Aircraft Corp is formed at Pawtucket, RI.

Emsco Aircraft Corp, Downey, CA, is closed down.

Ford Motor Co, Airplane Division, of which Edsel B Ford is President, builds the 4-AT-F, 5-D, 8-A, and 14-A transports.

Franklin Aircraft Corp, Franklin, PA, closes down.

General Western Aero Corp, Ltd, Santa Barbara, CA, builds a two-place monoplane designated the Meteor.

Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp, Valley Stream, LI, develops the XFF-1 fighter biplane for the Navy, in which is incorporated the Grumman-type retractable landing gear. Navy places order for 27 FF-1 fighters.

Inland Aviation Corp closes down at Kansas City.

Lockheed Aircraft Corp is reorganized by Robert E Gross. Assets and manufacturing rights from old Lockheed Aircraft Co (Division of Detroit Aircraft) are acquired.

Grover Loening Aircraft Co, Inc, is set up by Grover Loening at Garden City, LI, to manufacture a two-place amphibian known as the Duckling and the XSL-1 amphibian monoplane flying boat designed for the Navy.

The Glenn L Martin Co builds BM-1 and BN-2 dive bombers for the Navy and develops the XB-907 all-metal monoplane bomber for the Army. Company is also awarded contract by Pan American Airways, Inc, for the design and construction of three transoceanic flying boats designated as the Martin Model 130.

Mattley Airplane & Motor Co, San Bruno, CA, introduces a one- or two-place monoplane called the Flivver.

North American Aviation, Inc, now owns the Sperry Gyroscope Co, the Ford Instrument Co, Eastern Air Transport, Inc, and B/J Aircraft Corp, and is a substantial stockholder in other aviation companies including Douglas Aircraft and Western Air Express.

Northrop Corp is founded by John K Northrop at Inglewood, CA, after Northrop Aircraft, Division of United Aircraft & Transport Co, is consolidated with Stearman Aircraft in September of 1931. New company produces a single-seater, all-metal, low-wing monoplane for Frank Hawks and is constructing another new type for the Wilkins-Ellsworth Antarctic Expedition.

Pennsylvania Aircraft Syndicates, Ltd, of which E Wilford Burke is President, specializes in rotating wing aircraft and builds several experimental types of the Gyroplane.

Springfield Aircraft Co is established by Robert L Hall at Springfield, MA, and builds three racing monoplanes for the 1932 National Air Races.

Swallow Airplane Co, Wichita, KS, goes into receivership.

Uppercu Corp, Keyport, NJ, purchases the entire organization of the defunct Aeromarine-Klemm Corp

Wedell-Williams Air Service Corp, Patterson, LA, builds three low-wing racing monoplanes designed by James Wedell, one of which wins the Bendix Trophy Race at National Air Races and sets a new transcontinental speed record.

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January 5-7 — Fifth Annual All-American Air Races are held at Miami, FL. In the free-for-all unlimited engine displacement race, James Wedell is the winner with a speed of 205.295 mph.

January 26 — Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences holds its Founders Meeting at Columbia University, under guidance of Jerome C Hunsaker, President, and Lester D Gardner, Secretary. Charles L Lawrance is elected President for the year 1934.

January — Orville Wright is awarded the first Honorary Fellowship of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences.

February 2 — $6,000,000 Army Air Corps Base at Barksdale Field, Shreveport, LA, is dedicated.

February 16 — The Distinguished Flying Cross is awarded posthumously to Eugene Ely "for extraordinary achievement as a pioneer civilian aviator, and for his significant contribution to the development of aviation in the U.S. Navy."

February 17 — Major Gen Benjamin D Foulois is awarded the Mackay Trophy for 1931.

March 1 — The Air Commerce Regulations are amended to increase flying time required for a pilot's license from 10 to 50 hr.

March 1 — F Trubee Davison, Assistant Secretary of War for Aeronautics, retires as head of the Army Air Corps.

March 28 — Aircraft engine manufacturers are granted permission by the Aeronautics Branch, Department of Commerce, to conduct endurance tests on their own equipment.

April — Rear Adm E King is appointed Chief of Bureau of Aeronautics, US Navy.

April 4 — Navy's dirigible Akron crashes at sea off the coast of New Jersey, killing 73 officers, crew, and guests, including Rear Adm W A Moffett and Lt Comdr F C McCord, Commanding Officer.

May — Amelia Earhart Putnam is awarded the Harmon Trophy and the National Aviatrix Trophy in recognition of her transatlantic flight.

May 17 — Orville Wright is awarded the Franklin Institute Medal.

June 2 — Lt Comdr Frank M Hawks establishes a West-East nonstop record by flying from Los Angeles to Floyd Bennett Field, Brooklyn, NY, in 13 hr, 26 min, 15 sec.

June 23 — Navy's new $2,250,000 dirigible Macon is commissioned at Lakehurst, NJ.

June 28 — Capt Donald L Bruner, US Army Air Corps, is presented the Distinguished Flying Cross for his achievement in developing and perfecting night-flying equipment.

July — Amelia Earhart Putnam breaks her own transcontinental record by flying from Los Angeles to Newark in 17 hr, 17 min, 30 sec.

July 1 — Benton Field, Alameda City, CA, is named in honor of 1st Lt John W Benton, a member of the Army's Pan-American "Good-Will-Flight," who met his death in an aerial collision at Buenos Aires, February 26, 1927.

July 1-4 — National Air Races, under sponsorship of National Aeronautical Association, are held at Los Angeles.

July 14 — Westbound transcontinental record of 11 hr, 30 min, is established by Col Roscoe Turner flying a Wasp-powered Wedell-Williams monoplane in the Bendix Trophy Race from New York to Los Angeles.

July 9-December 19 — Col and Mrs Charles A Lindbergh, flying their Cyclone-powered Sirius seaplane, make a 29,000-mile survey flight from New York to Labrador, Greenland, Iceland, Europe, the Azores, Africa, Brazil, and return.

July 15-17 — Capt Stephen Darius and Stanley T Girenas fly from Floyd Bennett Field to Soldin, Germany, where their Bellanca airplane crashes and both men are killed.

July 15-22 — Wiley Post establishes a new record for around-the-world flight, starting from Floyd Bennett Field and covering 15,596 miles in 17 days, 18 hr, 49.5 min, in his Wasp-powered Lockheed Vega.

August 15 — Air Commerce Regulations are amended to abolish the solo pilot license, giving solo flying privileges of that grade to student pilots.

August 31 — Comdr Jerome C Hunsaker is awarded the Daniel Guggenheim Medal for 1933.

September — At the National Air Races in Cleveland, James R Wedell wins the Thompson Trophy Race in his Wedell-Williams Special at an average speed of 237.95 mph.

September — James R. Wedell breaks world's speed record for landplanes when he flies at an average speed of 305.33 mph, winning first place in the Phillips Trophy Race.

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September 2 — Gen Francesco de Pinedo is killed on takeoff from Floyd Bennett Field on attempted transatlantic flight.

September 20 — Eugene L Vidal is appointed Director of Aeronautics, Department of Commerce.

September 25 — Col Roscoe Turner establishes a new West-East transcontinental record of 10 hr, 4 min, 55 sec, in flight from Burbank, CA, to Floyd Bennett Field.

September 25 — Col and Mrs Charles A Lindbergh arrive in Moscow after a flight from Finland and Leningrad.

November 20-21 — Lt Comdr T G W Settle and Major C LFordney, US Marine Corps Reserve, reach an altitude of 61,237 ft (a world's record) in a balloon flight from Akron, OH.

November 24 — Aeronautics Branch, Department of Commerce, announces an airport development program to be undertaken in cooperation with the Civil Works Administration.

December 7 — An amateur grade of pilot's license, with a prerequisite of 25 hr of solo flying time, is created by the Aeronautics Branch.

December 21 — Col Charles A Lindbergh presents the Lockheed Sirius airplane and equipment used on his world survey flight to the American Museum of Natural History.

Robert Collier Trophy for 1933 is awarded to the Hamilton Standard Propeller Company, with particular credit to Frank W Caldwell, Chief Engineer, for the development of a controllable-pitch propeller now in general use.

1,057 airplanes, having a value of $26,500,000, are produced this year.

Important developments in the aircraft industry this year include a method for satisfactorily cooling high-power air-cooled engines enclosed by cowling (solved by A L McClain, F M Thomas, and Rex B Beisel of United Aircraft & Transport Corporation, through research on "baffling"); improvement of the two-row radial air-cooled engines; development of retractable landing gears for use on fast carrier-based fighters for the Navy; and the successful functioning of a new type of radio compass developed by Wright Field engineers and installed in Wiley Post's airplane for his round-the-world flight.


B/J Aircraft Corp (Division of General Aviation Corp), Dundalk, MD, is now known as General Aviation Mfg Corp as a result of the merger between General Aviation Corp and North American Aviation Corp

Bellanca Aircraft Corp receives orders from US Army Air Corps for 14 large heavy-duty airplanes for general transport and cargo work.

Boeing Airplane Co, Division of United Aircraft & Transport Co, produces 75 of their Model 247-D all-metal transport planes for the air lines and a fleet of the P-26A pursuit planes for the Army.

Burnelli Aircraft Corp, Keyport, NJ, develops a 14-passenger high-speed transport monoplane.

Consolidated Aircraft Corp builds the P2Y bombing scout flying boat for the Navy.

Douglas Aircraft Co, Inc, which in the past has devoted 90 per cent of its output to military airplanes, designs the DC-1 transport specifically for Transcontinental & Western Air, Inc.

Edo Aircraft Corp, College Point, LI, builds a high-speed all-metal amphibian seaplane for Seversky.

Fairchild Aviation Corp produces the Fairchild 22 and 24 at its Kreider-Reisner Aircraft Division in Hagerstown, MD.

Ford Motor Co, Airplane Division, ceases the construction of Ford trimotored transports.

General Aviation Corp and North American Aviation, Inc, merge in March of this year. As a result, General Motors Corp assumes control of Eastern Air Transport, Inc, Transcontinental & Western Air, Inc, and Western Air Express, subsidiaries of North American Aviation, Inc

Granville Aircraft Corp is established at Springfield, MA, to build the Gee-Bee airplanes formerly manufactured by Granville Bros Aircraft Co. This new corporation closes down later in year, and Z D Granville, President, goes into partnership with some previous associates as an aeronautical consultant.

International Aircraft Corp, Niles, MI, is name under which Heath Aircraft Corp now operates. Company continues building the Heath Parasol and Center-Wing models.

Kellett Autogiro Corp, Philadelphia, builds the K-3 and K-4 two-place autogiro models.

Keystone Aircraft Corp (Division of Curtiss-Wright Corp) produces the Panther, B-6A, the PK-1, and the OL-9 models.

Kinner Airplane & Motor Corp, Glendale, CA, is producing two-place and four-place cabin monoplanes.

Longren Aircraft, Inc, is organized at Kansas City, MO, to build a patented metal fuselage.

The Glenn L Martin Co is awarded a contract by the Army for the design and construction of 48 twin-engined bombers designated according to engine installations as Models XB-10, YB-10A, YB-12, YB-12A, and YB-14.

Northrop Corp produces the Gamma freight-carrying airplane and a passenger-carrying version of this plane designated the Delta.

Ryan Aeronautical Co introduces the first of its S-T monoplane trainer series. (See illus)

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January — A precision method of controlling aerial traffic, considered the most advanced and efficient so far devised, is placed in operation at Newark Airport, Newark, NJ.

January 10-11 — A squadron of six PZY-1 Navy flying boats, under command of Lt Comdr Knefler McGinnis, fly in formation from San Francisco to Honolulu, accomplishing the longest nonstop overwater mass flight ever made.

January 20 — US Department of justice begins investigation of airmail contracts.

January 27 — US War Department reveals details of a 5-year plan for building air defenses and a larger Army Air Corps.

January 30 — Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences holds its Annual Meeting at Columbia University, New York City, and elects Donald W Douglas President for 1935.

February 3 — US Bureau of Air Commerce announces the campaign to place airplane roof-markings in every US city.

February 9 — President Roosevelt issues an Executive Order canceling all existing airmail contracts, because of evidence of fraud and collusion, and designates the Army Air Corps to take over the operation of the air mail.

February 10 — New York Stock Exchange reports a slump in the market following cancellation of airmail contracts.

February 14-15 — Sushan Airport is dedicated at New Orleans.

February 18-19 — Capt E V Rickenbacker and Jack Frye fly from Los Angeles to Newark, NJ, in one of Transcontinental & Western Air's new Douglas DC-1s, establishing a new record for passenger transports of 13 hr, 2 min.

February 19 — Major R S Landis is awarded the Distinguished Service Cross by Congress.

February 19 — The Army Air Corps starts the actual carrying of the air mail.

February 28-April 25 — Laura H Ingalls, flying a Wasp-powered Lockheed Air Express, makes a 17,000-mile tour of South America from New York and return.

March 31 — Hubbard Gold Medal is awarded by the National Geographic Society to Mrs Charles A Lindbergh for achievements as copilot and radio operator on the 29,000-mile survey flight made with her husband.

April 4 — US Bureau of Commerce tests a blind-flying radio landing system for air lines. .

April 15 — Airport Development with Federal Aid, started under the Civil Works Administration, is transferred to the Federal Emergency Relief Administration for completion of projects.

April 18 — Baker Board, appointed by Secretary of War to make study of the operation of the Army Air Corps, holds its first meeting.

May 18 — Aeronautics Branch, Department of Commerce, calls for bids on a new type of airplane for its inspectors.

May 7-June 1 — Airmail operations by the Army Air Corps are gradually terminated.

June 12 — Air Mail Act of 1934, which includes provision for the appointment of a Federal Aviation commission, is signed by President Roosevelt.

June 14 — Elliott Roosevelt is elected Vice-President of Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce of America.

June 20 — William E Boeing receives the 1934 Daniel Guggenheim Medal for his achievements in air transportation and aircraft manufacture.

July — The Baker Board recommends: purchase of planes from private manufacturers instead of constructing them in Government shops; the fostering of aircraft exporting by Department of Commerce; and the purchase of aircraft by the War Department by negotiated contract, by competitive bids, or by purchase after design competition.

July 1 — The name of the Aeronautics Branch is changed to Bureau of Air Commerce.

July 1 — US Air Mail Rate is reduced from 10 cents to 6 cents an ounce.

July 9 — Sleeping plane service between Chicago and New York is inaugurated by American Airlines using Curtiss-Wright Condors.

July 29 — Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce of America announces removal of its headquarters from New York to Washington.

August 4-5 — Women's National Air Meet is held at Dayton, OH.

August 31-September 30 — National Air Races are held in Cleveland.

September — New York University confers a degree of Master of Science on Col Charles A Lindbergh.

September 1 — Col Roscoe Turner establishes new transcontinental record and wins Bendix Trophy Race by flying from Burbank, CA, to Floyd Bennett Field, Brooklyn, in 10 hr, 2 min, 57 sec.

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September — Thompson Trophy Race, at National Air Races, is won by Col Roscoe Turner flying a Wedell-Williams Special at an average speed of 248.12 mph.

September 5 — Wall Street Skyport is dedicated at New York City.

December 8 — Corry Field, at the Naval Air Station, Pensacola, FL, named in honor of Lt W M Corry, who was killed in a crash on October 7, 1920, is dedicated by Rear Adm E J King.

December 23 — Sylvanus Albert Reed establishes a $10,000 endowment for the presentation of an annual award by the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences "for notable contribution to the aeronautical sciences resulting from experimental or theoretical investigations, the beneficial influence of which on the development of practical aeronautics is apparent."

Z D Granville, former President of Granville Aircraft Corp, is killed in an air accident.

Robert J Collier Trophy for 1934 is awarded to Capt Albert F Hegenberger, US Army Air Corps, for the development and demonstration of a successful blind-landing system.

The Sylvanus Albert Reed Award for 1934 is awarded by the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences to Prof C G Rossby and Dr HC Willett for their work in meteorology.


Alhambra Airport & Air Transport Co, Alhambra, CA, now producing the Loughead Alcor monoplane.

Boeing Airplane Co secedes from control of United Aircraft & Transport Corp and becomes an independent manufacturing organization, with the Boeing Aircraft of Seattle, the Stearman Aircraft Co of Wichita, and the Boeing Aircraft of Canada, Ltd, as subsidiaries.

Lawrence Brown Aircraft Co, Inglewood, CA, builds light sport monoplane to special order.

Cessna Aircraft Co, Wichita, KS, reopens its plant in January of this year and starts building the C-34 four-place monoplane under the guidance of Clyde V Cessna, President of the company.

Curtiss-Wright Corp elects Guy W Vaughn, President, to succeed Thomas A Moran.

Douglas Aircraft Co, Inc, Santa Monica, CA, builds one of first transport planes to incorporate flaps and a two-fuel system installation. Douglas sells manufacturing rights on the DC-2 to the Nakajima Co in Japan for $100,000. Also sells manufacturing rights in Europe (exclusive of Russia and Great Britain) to Anthony Fokker for a royalty of $3,000 per unit.

Fairchild Aviation Corp sells 85 airplanes this year.

Ford Motor Co, Airplane Division, conducts experimental work on the design of a light two-place airplane for private owners.

Hammond Aircraft Corp builds a two-place pusher airplane for the Bureau of Air Commerce in the private-owner airplane program.

Lambert Aircraft Corp is formed at Robertson, MO, to take over the Monocoupe Corp and to continue building the line of Monocoupe airplanes.

Lockheed Aircraft Corp produces the ten-passenger Electra, an all-metal transport which incorporates landing flaps.

Grover Loening Aircraft Co, Inc, temporarily suspends production of airplanes in its own plant and subcontracts with existing manufacturing companies for production of its designs.

The Glenn L Martin Co delivers the last of 14 YB-10 and seven YB-12 bombers to the Army and is awarded contract for the design and construction of 89 Model B-10B and 25 YB-12A bombers. Company also produces the XB-14 and XB-16 experimental bombers, as well as the Model 130 46-passenger ocean transport, the largest all-metal monoplane flying boat built in this country.

Monocoupe Corp is purchased by the Lambert Aircraft Corp.

North American Aviation, Inc, acquires the assets of General Aviation Mfg Co, and this latter company at Dundalk, MD, is now known as the Manufacturing Division of North American Aviation, Inc.

Northrop Corp (subsidiary of Douglas Aircraft Co, Inc) produces a bomber that is bought by the British Air Ministry.

Pitcairn Autogiro Co, Willow Grove, PA, builds the PA-18, PA-19, and PA-20 autogiros.

Porterfield Aircraft Corp is formed at Kansas City, MO, by E E Porterfield.

Seversky Aircraft Corp, Farmingdale, LI, builds the SEV-3 monoplane.

Sikorsky Aviation Corp produces the S-42 Clipper, which pioneers Pan American Airway's Pacific service.

Stinson Aircraft Co, Wayne, MI, elects B D De Weese, President, following the resignation of L B Manning.

O W Timm Airplane Corp moves to Burbank, CA, where it continues in aircraft repair work.

United Aircraft & Transport Corp is dissolved under the Air Mail Act of this year, and separate companies are set up to engage in the manufacturing and transportation fields.

United Aircraft Corp, East Hartford, CT, is organized as successor to United Aircraft & Transport Corp in the manufacturing field. This corporation, controls Chance Vought Corp, Hamilton Standard Propeller Co, Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Co, and Sikorsky Aviation Corp

United Airlines Transport Corp is formed to take over the transportation operations of the now-dissolved United Aircraft & Transport Corp, which includes Boeing Air Transport, Pacific Air Transport, Varney Airlines, United Airlines, and National Airlines.

United Aircraft Exports Corp, NY, is formed as a subsidiary of United Aircraft Corp and takes over assets of United Aircraft Exports, Inc

Waterman Aircraft Co, Los Angeles, is awarded contract for a pusher, tailless airplane from the Bureau of Air Commerce in the private-owner airplane program.

Wedell-Williams Air Service Corp suffers a loss when James Wedell is killed in an airplane accident this summer.

Wright Aeronautical Corp, in addition to producing large quantities of Whirlwinds for domestic aircraft manufacturers, exports 300 engines to Soviet Russia this year.

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January 12 — Amelia Earhart Putnam flies from Hawaii to California in her old second-hand plane, becoming the first person to fly alone across this stretch.

January 15 — Major James H Doolittle, with two passengers, flies an American Airlines' plane nonstop from Los Angeles to Brooklyn in 11 hr, 59 min.

February 12 — The Navy's dirigible Macon crashes at sea off the California coast, killing two members of the crew.

February 22 — Leland S Andrews in an American Airlines' Vultee transport, whittles down Doolittle's transcontinental record by flying from Los Angeles to Brooklyn in 11 hr, 34 min, 16 sec.

March 6 — Secretary of Commerce signs special traffic rule prohibiting flights over downtown Washington, DC.

April 9 — Mackay Trophy for 1934 is presented to Brig Gen H H Arnold for his leadership of the Air Corps flight to Alaska.

April 16-23 — Pan American Airways' Clipper flies from California to Honolulu and return in a preliminary survey flight to open up a transpacific air route to the Orient.

April 30 — Transcontinental record for transport airplanes is again broken when D W Tomlinson, flying a Transcontinental & Western Air Douglas DC-1, makes the flight from Burbank to Brooklyn in 11 hr, 5 min, 45 sec.

April 30 — Col James Barnes, authority and pioneer in aerial photography and former Commander of the Photographic Section of the US in World War, dies at the age of 70.

May 8 — Amelia Earhart Putnam flies nonstop from Mexico City to Newark, NJ, in 14 hr, 18 min, 30 sec, becoming the first person to fly this course nonstop from South to North and the only woman to fly it either way.

May 9 — US Navy dispatches 46 Consolidated flying boats from Honolulu to Midway Islands, 1,323 miles away, on a secret patrol mission.

May 12 — Hamilton Field, the new Army Air Corps post at San Rafael, CA, is officially dedicated in honor of 1st Lt Lloyd Andrews Hamilton, who was killed in action in France, August 26, 1918.

May 25 — 225 US airplanes assemble at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, for participation in Pacific "war" maneuvers.

June — Bureau of Air Commerce applies for $58,759,000 of relief funds for a coordinated airport development fund.

June 4-July 1 — Fred and "Al" Keys establish a new refueling endurance record by staying in the air 27 days, 5 hr, 34 min, over Meridian, MS.

June 12 — Former airmail contractors file claims totaling more than $14,000,000 against Postmaster General Farley and the Post Office Department.

July 11 — Laura Ingalls establishes an East-West transcontinental record for women by flying from Floyd Bennett Field, Brooklyn, to Burbank, CA, in 18 hr, 23 min.

August — Robert Swenson is killed and John Miller injured in the first American autogiro fatal accident, Willow Grove, PA .

August — Congress passes the Wilcox Bill authorizing the development of new Army Air Corps' stations.

August 1 — New airworthiness requirements governing exits from cabin airplanes and ballast for aircraft become effective.

August 8 — Major Gen B D Foulois, Chief of US Army Air Corps, voluntarily retires.

August 15 — Will Rogers and Wiley Post are killed in a takeoff crash near Point Barrow, AK.

August 29 — Bureau of Air Commerce begins its part in the WPA Airport Development Program, giving technical advice and passing upon all projects submitted.

August — Congress passes a bill introduced by Representative Lee of Oklahoma providing $25,000 for the purchase of Wiley Post's airplane Winnie Mae for the Smithsonian Institution.

August 30-September 2 — National Air Races are held at Cleveland.

September — Thompson Trophy Race, held at Cleveland Air Races, is won by Harold Neumann flying a Howard Special, Mr Mulligan, in a drizzling rain that slows down his average speed for the 100-mile course to 220.19 mph.

September 6 — Bureau of Air Commerce completes the flight checking of sectional aeronautical charts covering the entire US.

September 12 — Laura Ingalls flies nonstop from Burbank, CA, to Brooklyn in a Lockheed Orion, making a new West-East transcontinental record for women of 13 hr, 34 min, 5 sec.

September 13 — Howard Hughes, flying a Wasp Jr-powered Hughes Special, makes a landplane speed record of 352.388 mph at Santa Ana, CA.

September 15 — Alexander P de Seversky establishes an amphibian speed record of 230.413 mph at Detroit.

September 19 — Major Gen B D Foulois is elected an Honorary Member by the Council of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences.

October 30 — Major Ployer P Hill, Chief of the Flying Branch, is killed, and other crew members are injured, in the crash of a new four-engined Boeing bomber at Wright Field, Dayton, OH.

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November 11 — Capt Albert W Stevens and Capt Orville A Anderson establish a new altitude balloon record of 72,394.795 ft.

November 22-29 — Pan American Airways inaugurates its first transpacific service from San Francisco to Honolulu, Midway Island, Wake Island, Guam, and Manila with the China Clipper Martin flying boat, which makes the round trip in 122 hr, 42 min flying time. (See illus p 56)

November 29 — A device for elimination of propeller ice is developed by the Bureau of Air Commerce in cooperation with the industry.

December 24 — Major Gen Oscar Westover is appointed Chief of the US Army Air Corps.

Robert J Collier Trophy for 1935 is awarded to Donald W Douglas and the technical and production personnel of Douglas Aircraft Company, Inc, for development of the outstanding twin-engined commercial transport airplane.

The Daniel Guggenheim Medal for 1935 is awarded to Dr William F Durand for achievements in laboratory research and theory of aeronautics and development of aircraft propeller theories.

The Sylvanus Albert Reed Award is presented by the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences to Frank Walker Caldwell, "for increasing the effectiveness of aircraft through development and improvement of controllable and constant-speed propellers."

860,761 passengers are carried on commercial airways. Domestic aircraft operators other than scheduled air lines fly 87,755,630 miles and carry 1,287,875 passengers during this year, and establish new safety record by averaging 536,405 miles of flying for each fatal accident.

A total of 1,691 airplanes, of which 317 are for the military services and 295 for export trade, are produced in the US this year.

Ethyl Gasoline Corporation reports that more than 55,000,000 gal of gasoline were used in airplanes during 1935.


American Gyro Co, Denver, builds a four-place and six-place cabin monoplane designed by Thomas M Sheldon.

Argonaut Aircraft, Inc, Tonawanda, NY, produces a three-place amphibian flying boat monoplane called the Pirate.

Arrow Aircraft & Engine Co receives order from the Bureau of Air Commerce in the private-owner airplane program for a model equipped with a Ford V-8 automobile engine.

Arup Mfg Corp, South Bend, IN, develops a tailless monoplane designed by Dr C L Snyder.

Autogiro Co of America is awarded order from the Bureau of Air Commerce for a wingless, direct-control autogiro.

Bell Aircraft Corp is founded at Buffalo, by Lawrence D Bell, Foreman and later General Manager of the early Martin factory in Los Angeles and for many years Vice-President and General Manager of Consolidated Aircraft.

Boeing Airplane Co produces the Model 299 four-engined bomber, first of the Flying Fortress type.

Cairns Development Co, Inc, Naugatuck, CT, builds two models of a two-place light monoplane.

Consolidated Aircraft Corp builds a modern plant at San Diego, CA, and moves all of its equipment and a nucleus of its working staff from Buffalo. Company is awarded contracts by the Army and Navy for 60 P3Y type twin-engined patrol boats at a price of $6,506,000.

Continental Aircraft Engine Co receives order from Bureau of Air Commerce in the private-owner airplane program for a six-cylinder, radial, air-cooled engine of the two-stroke, sleeve-valve, uniflow, scavenging type.

Cunningham-Hall Aircraft Corp, which has been inactive during the past few years, introduces a new monoplane designated Model GA-21M.

Curtiss-Wright Corp, in addition to production of airplanes for the military services, builds a two-place cabin plane for the Bureau of Air Commerce and carries on experiments with an electrical controllable-pitch propeller.

Douglas Aircraft Co, Inc, produces the first of the famous DC-3 transports. (See illus)

Fahlin Aircraft Co, Marshall, MO, builds a two-place light monoplane called the Plymo-Coupe.

Fairchild Aviation Corp introduces a three-place cabin plane, delivers a large single-engined monoplane built especially for air freight to the Army Air Corps, delivers its first five-place cabin plane, and builds a ten-place all-metal stressed-skin amphibian for Pan American Airways. In all, company sells 93 airplanes this year.

Hammond Aircraft Corp, Ypsilanti, MI, develops the Model "Y" two-place pusher monoplane.

Ben O. Howard, Chicago, produces the high-speed racing airplanes, Mr Mulligan, Ike, and Mike.

Howard Hughes builds a racing monoplane, designed by Richard Palmer, at Los Angeles.

Lockheed Aircraft Corp, of which Robert E Gross is President, reports a net profit of $217,986 for the year, against a net loss of $190,891 in 1934.

Luscombe Airplane Corp is formed at West Trenton, NJ, by Donald Luscombe, formerly with Monocoupe Corp, to build an all-metal light monoplane designated the Phantom.

The Glenn L Martin Co produces 15 B-10B twin-engined monoplane bombers for the Army Air Corps (see illus) and the first Model 146 bomber.

North American Aviation, Inc, of which J H Kindelberger is President, starts construction of a new plant at Inglewood, CA.

Rearwin Airplanes, Inc, Kansas City, KS, is taken over by a partnership composed of Royce S Rearwin and Kenneth Rearwin. The new partnership, called Rearwin Airplanes, produces the Junior, Speedster, and Sportster models. (See illus)

Wiley Post Aircraft Corp (so named in honor of the late famous airman) is formed at Oklahoma City to manufacture a two-place biplane originally developed by the Straughan Aircraft Co.

St Louis Aircraft Corp, specializing in the design and production of aircraft parts, has on hand a number of special projects for the Army and Navy including the building of complete aircraft.

Spartan Aircraft Co, Tulsa, OK, manufactures a light commercial airplane in connection with its school for pilots and aircraft mechanics.

Timm Aircraft Co, Glendale, CA, returns to production after being inactive for the past several years and builds the T-800 twin-engined commercial monoplane.

Waterman Arrowplane Corp is incorporated at Santa Monica, CA, with Waldo Waterman as President.

Fred Weick designs an airplane, designated the Weick W-1, for the Bureau of Air Commerce in private-owner airplane program.

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January 13-4 — Howard Hughes, flying a Northrop Gamma, establishes nonstop transcontinental record of 9 hr, 26 min, 10 sec, between Burbank, CA, and Newark, NJ.

January 29 — Glenn L Martin is elected President of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences for 1936.

January 29 — Pilot Ted Kincannon is killed, and five passengers are injured, when transport plane from Chicago makes forced landing near Denton, TX.

January 30 — Major Lester D Gardner receives a scroll from Ligue Internationale des Aviateurs for his contributions to the advancement of aeronautics.

January 30 — Dr. William F Durand, Professor Emeritus of Stanford University and Chairman of the Airship Advisory Board, receives the Honorary Fellowship for 1935 in the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences.

February — More than 100,000 persons attend the National Pacific Aircraft and Boat Show during its 9-day run in Los Angeles.

February 3 — California manufacturers of aircraft report slowing down in deliveries because of scarcity of skilled workers.

February 9 — Nearly 40,000 men are at work on $35,000,000 WPA Aviation Projects in 42 states.

February 10 — House Appropriations Committee Army Supply Bill provides $10,669,786 for aircraft procurement and $45,540,177 for airplanes, including 565 planes to be purchased during the next fiscal year.

February 16 — The first Douglas DST sleeper plane enters airline service.

February 17 — Hiram Percy Maxim, pioneer inventor, dies of throat infection at La Juanta Hospital at age of 66.

February 19 — Former Brig Gen William Mitchell, age 58, dies in Doctors Hospital, New York City.

February 29 — By Executive Order, President Roosevelt gives the Navy jurisdiction over the mid-Pacific island of Kure (or Ocean Island), a possible landing stage on air routes across the Pacific.

April — 14,806 pilots and 7,205 aircraft hold active Department of Commerce licenses as of this date.

April — S Paul Johnston becomes Editor of Aviation magazine.

April 1 — Col Charles A Lindbergh is granted air permit by British Air Ministry in London.

April 4 — Navy's newest and largest aircraft carrier, USS Yorktown, is launched at Newport News, VA, and christened by Mrs Franklin D Roosevelt.

April 25 — Lincoln Ellsworth's plane, Polar Star, is presented to the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.

April 29 — Orville Wright is elected a Member of the National Academy of Sciences.

May 9 — Dr George W Lewis, Director of Aeronautical Research of the NACA, receives 1936 Daniel Guggenheim Medal "for outstanding success in the direction of aeronautical research and for the development of original equipment and methods."

May 12 — World's largest high-speed wind tunnel is put in operation at Langley Field Laboratories of the NACA.

May 17 — The Lawrence B Sperry Award, made possible by a $10,000 Fund donated by the Sperry Family, is established. The Award is to be made annually through the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences to the young man who, in the opinion of the Award Committee, has made the "greatest contribution to the advancement of aeronautics during the year for which the Award is presented."

May 17 — Capt William L Scott, Jr, US Army, head of Wright Field Engineering School, is killed in an airplane crash near Dayton, OH.

May 19 — Harry P Williams, organizer of the Wedell-Williams Corporation, is killed in an airplane crash at Baton Rouge, LA.

May 22 — A new type of aircraft known as the Herrick Vertiplane, which embodies characteristics of both airplanes and autogiros, undergoes safety tests and speed trials at Floyd Bennett Field.

May 28 — Col and Mrs Charles A Lindbergh are guests at a Royal Dinner at St James Palace, London.

May 29 — US Army hangar and five airplanes are destroyed in $300,000 fire at Kansas City Airport.

June 1 — President Roosevelt vetoes bill providing for the development of a Naval Air Station at Miami, FL.

June 7 — Major Ira C Eaker, US Army Air Corps, flying blind and relying solely on instruments, makes flight from New York to Los Angeles.

June 9 — President Roosevelt vetoes bill authorizing the creation of an Air Reserve Training Corps.

June 12 — Rear Adm Arthur B Cook is appointed Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics, US Navy.

June 21 — National Air Races, scheduled for September 5, 6, and 7, are shifted to Los Angeles because of improvements being made in the Cleveland Municipal Airport.

June 25 — President Roosevelt approves bill authorizing a maximum strength of 2,320 airplanes for the Army.

June 27 — US Post Office Department settles airmail suits with Northwest Airways, Western Air Express, Transcontinental & Western Air, and American Airways for $601,511.08.

July 1 — 2,402 airports and landing fields, of which 701 are partly or fully lighted for night use, are in existence in the US on this date.

July 3 — Wright Brothers' old bicycle shop in Dayton, OH, where the first airplane was invented, is purchased by Henry Ford for removal to his Greenfield Village Exhibit at Dearborn, MI.

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July 11 — A bronze tablet commemorating the first known glider flight by Octave Chanute in 1896 is dedicated at Gary, IN.

July 22 — Earle L Ovington, first pilot to carry US mail by airplane in 1911, dies at age of 56 in Los Angeles.

August 22 — Charles Ward Hall, President of Hall-Aluminum Aircraft Co, Bristol, PA, is killed in a plane crash near Princeton, NJ.

September 2 — Major Alexander P de Seversky is refused permission by the Army Air Corps to enter his pursuit plane in the Bendix Trophy Race to Los Angeles or even fly there "due to features considered a military secret."

September 2-3 — Harry Richmond and Henry T Merrill fly from Floyd Bennett Field to Llwyncelyn, Wales, in 18 hr, 38 min, on an attempted flight to London.

September 4-8 — National Air Races are held at Los Angeles.

September 4 — Mrs Louise Thaden and Mrs Blanche Noyes, flying a Wright-powered Beechcraft, win the Bendix Trophy Race flying from New York to Los Angeles in 15 hr, 54 min, 49 sec.

September 4 — Ben O Howard and his wife, flying in the Bendix Trophy Race, are seriously injured when their Mr Mulligan crashes near Los Angeles.

September — Thompson Trophy Race is won by Michel Detroyat, flying a French Caudron at an average speed of 264.26 mph.

October 7 — 1,000 new pilots are licensed by the Bureau of Air Commerce during past 12 months.

October 13 — Lilienthal Society meetings, opening in Berlin today, are attended by Arthur Nutt, Dr Clark B Millikan, and Major Lester D Gardner, American representatives.

October 24 — Pan American Airways' China Clipper completes its first round trip to Manila with passengers, returning to Alameda, CA.

November 4 — Post Office Department authorizes shipment of "certain live animals" by air mail — excluding skunks.

November 10 — President Roosevelt orders a new policy covering the export of military planes which stipulates that foreign countries wishing to buy American-built airplanes of types used by US Government, must wait 2 years for deliveries.

December 9 — National Aeronautic Association gives city of Cleveland the contract for the National Air Races for the next 5 years.

December 9 — Juan de la Cierva, inventor of the autogiro, is killed in the crash of a KLM Airliner at Croydon Airport, London.

December 19 — Morrison Field, $175,000 airport constructed by the Government, is dedicated at West Palm Beach, FL.

December 19 — Major Alexander P de Seversky sets a new world's record for amphibians of 209.04 mph over a 100-kilometer course.

Robert Collier Trophy for 1936 is awarded to Pan American Airways for the establishment of the transpacific line and the successful execution of extended overwater navigation and regular operation thereof.

The Sylvanus Albert Reed Award for 1936 is presented by the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences to Edward Story Taylor "for development and practical application of the dynamic vibration absorber for aircraft engines."


Aero Engineering Corp, Los Angeles, builds a two-place cabin monoplane called the Aeronieer.

Air Transport Mfg Co, Ltd, Glendale, CA, produces the P-2 monoplane and the T-6 three-engined and B-6 two-engined cabin monoplane.

Aircraft Development Corp, controlled by Cord interests, becomes the Vultee Aircraft Division of Aviation Mfg Corp.

Aircraft Corp and subsidiaries report a net loss of $432,432 on net sales of $1,782,372 for 1935.

Barkley-Grow Aircraft Corp, Detroit, introduces the TSP-1 twin-engined commercial monoplane.

Bellanca Aircraft Corp and subsidiaries report net loss of $194,221 for 1935.

Bendix Aviation Corp purchases interest in Jaeger Watch Co for use in manufacture of precision instruments.

Brewster Aeronautical Corp develops an experimental model for the Navy, the XSBA-1 two-seater scout bomber, and produces the XF2A-1, an export version of the Navy's F2-A.

Edward G Budd Co, Bristol, PA, manufacturers of streamlined railway trains, builds an all-stainless-steel commercial monoplane.

Campbell Aircraft Co, Inc, St Joseph, MO, develops a two-place light monoplane of magnesium construction. (See illus)

Arthur Chester, Chicago, completes a special racing monoplane.

Consolidated Aircraft Corp, San Diego, CA, receives contracts from Navy in July for 51 flying boats to cost $5,485,115. An additional order for 66 patrol flying boats is awarded by the Navy in October. Company reports a net income of $322,731 for 1935.

Continental Motor Corp, Detroit, receives its largest single order for aircraft engines to date when Taylor Aircraft Co places order for 1,050 37-hp units.

Harry Crosby builds a special racing monoplane for the 1936 National Air Races.

Crusader Aircraft Corp is formed at Glendale, CA, to develop a twin-engined cabin monoplane designed by T M Sheldon.

Curtiss-Wright Corp receives contract from War Department for three Y1-P-36 attack airplanes. Corporation reports a net profit, covering all subsidiaries, of $2,886 for 1935.

Douglas Aircraft Co, Inc, receives many orders from air lines for the DC-3 transport. Five major air lines sign contract for construction of an experimental transport capable of carrying 40 passengers. Douglas also awarded Navy contract for 114 torpedo bombers, in addition to the Army's orders for O-46A observation planes. Company reports a net profit of $1,262,967, the largest in its history, for 1935.

Fairchild Aviation Corp sells 95 airplanes this year. Corporation and its subsidiaries report a net loss of $96,868 for the year 1935.

Fleet Aircraft Co, Fort Erie, NY, receives order from Royal Canadian Air Force for 20 airplanes.

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Clayton Folkerts, Waterloo, IA designs a racing monoplane to compete in the 1936 National Air Races.

Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp delivers the XSBF experimental scout bomber to the Navy.

Gwinn Aircar Co is formed at Buffalo, by Joseph M Gwinn, Jr, formerly a Chief Engineer with Consolidated.

Hall Aluminum Aircraft Corp, Bristol, PA, is awarded $709,852 contract for six Coast Guard flying boats.

Heath Aviation Co, Benton Harbor, MI, is now building the Parasol and Center-Wing airplanes produced last year by International Aircraft Corp of Niles, MI.

Lockheed Aircraft Corp produces the Electra, the first three of which go to the Army Air Corps and another to Amelia Earhart Putnam for use as an aerial laboratory in her work as Consultant Member of the Purdue University faculty. Company reports a net income of $217,986 for 1935.

The Glenn L Martin Co, in addition to its domestic contracts, builds 13 bombers for the Netherlands Government and a large flying boat for Soviet Russia. (See illus p 65)

Menasco Mfg Co develops two new supercharged aircraft engines of the inverted in-line type: the Pirate, four-cylinder Model C4S, and the Buccaneer, six-cylinder Model B6S.

Meyers Aircraft Co is formed at Tecumseh, MI, to manufacture training biplanes.

Military Aircraft Corp is organized by Donald E DeLackner at New York City to manufacture advanced types of military airplanes.

North American Aviation, Inc, now in production in its new plant at Los Angeles, is awarded contract by the War Department for 117 BT-9 basic training planes and 120 new observation planes.

Pasped Aircraft Co, Glendale, CA, produces the Skylark, two-place cabin monoplane.

Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Division, United Aircraft Corp, develops a new 1,160-hp 14-cylinder twin-row Wasp engine. Navy awards $2,743,721 contract to the company for 249 Pratt & Whitney engines.

Rider-Clark Aircraft Corp, Los Angeles, builds the Keith-Rider racing monoplane for 1936 National Air Races.

Rose Airplane Corp, Chicago, introduces a single-place sport-model plane designated the Parrakeet.

St Louis Aircraft Corp produces the PT-35 training plane.

Security National Aircraft Corp is formed by W B Kinner and his son at Glendale, CA, to build the SI-A two-place open monoplane.

Seversky Aircraft Corp, Farmingdale, LI, is awarded a War Department contract of $1,636,250 for 77 single-seater low-wing pursuit monoplanes.

Sikorsky Aviation Corp builds twelve of the S-43 15-passenger amphibians for Pan American Airways and receives orders for three of this model from Colonial Line for service in Africa.

Stearman Aircraft Co receives a War Department order for 28 additional training planes toward the close of this year.

Stearman-Hammond Aircraft Corp is organized at San Francisco by Lloyd Stearman and Dean B Hammond to manufacture the Hammond Y.

Stinson Aircraft Corp, Wayne, MI, brings out a new four-passenger cabin plane, Reliant, powered with a 245-hp Lycoming engine.

Taylor Aircraft Co, Bradford, PA, undergoes change in management when C G Taylor leaves company and T V Weld succeeds him as President. Company produces the Cub Flivver.

Taylorcraft Aviation Co is organized at Butler, PA, by C G Taylor former President of Taylor Aircraft Co.

United Aircraft Corp and subsidiaries report a net income of $434,635 for 1935.

Chance Vought Division, United Aircraft Corp, builds the SBU-1 Corsair for the Navy and the V-143 low-wing monoplane for the Army.

Vultee Aircraft Division, Aviation Mfg Corp, produces the V-11 attack bomber.

Warner Aircraft Corp reports a net income of $15,953 for 1935.

Wright Aeronautical Corp receives contracts from the War Department covering 662 Cyclone and Whirlwind engines totaling more than $5,100,000. Company reports net profit of $423,395 for 1935.


January 1 — There are 15,952 pilots and 7,424 aircraft holding active Department of Commerce licenses at this time.

January — Edward C Huffaker, pioneer airplane modeler and one-time associate of the Wright Brothers and Samuel P Langley, dies at the age of 80 at Oxford, MS.

January 8 — Harris Mathewson Hanshue, pioneer air-transport operator and former President of TWA, dies at the age of 52.

January 9 — National Aeronautic Association drafts a six-point program for strengthening US Air Forces, to be urged on Congress.

January 13 — Martin Johnson, famous explorer, dies from injuries suffered yesterday in crash of Western Air Express transport plane near Los Angeles.

January 14 — Bert Acosta and Gordon K Berry, Americans who have been flying for the Spanish Government during the Civil War in Spain, are served with a Federal Grand jury subpoena upon their return to USA.

January 16 — An Eastern Air Lines' transport completes the first commercial nonstop flight from Miami, FL, to Newark, NJ.

January 19 — Howard Hughes, flying a Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp Jr-powered Hughes Special racer, flies from Los Angeles to New York in 7 hr, 28 min, 25 sec, for an average speed of 327.5 mph.

January 26 — During an 8-hr period, 47 planes land at Louisville, KY, with medicine and relief supplies for flood sufferers in that area.

January 27 — Four major air lines agree to curtail operations during stormy weather at Los Angeles as result of three recent crashes in which 24 lives were lost.

January 28-29 — Twelve US Navy PBY-1 Consolidated flying boats, under the leadership of Lt Comdr W M McDade, make a record nonstop ocean mass flight from San Diego, CA, to Honolulu, in 21 hr, 43 min.

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January 29-Feb 7 — The National Air Show, New York's first in 7 years, has an attendance record of over 250,000 people and sales of planes and accessories of over $1,000,000.

March 16 — Major A B McMullen is appointed Chief of the Airport Marking and Mapping Section of the Bureau of Air Commerce.

March 17-20 — Amelia Earhart Putnam, with Capt Harry Manning and Fred Noonan as navigators, and Paul Mantz, technical adviser and mechanic, fly from Oakland, CA, to Honolulu on the first leg of a proposed round-the-world flight. The Lockheed Electra airplane blows out a tire on the takeoff, the plane is partially wrecked, and the flight is temporarily abandoned.

March 21 — United Airlines experiences the first air-transport suicide in America when Anatole Maren plunges from one of their planes near Bakersfield, CA.

March 23-31 — Capt Edwin C Musick flies a Pan American Airways' Clipper from San Francisco to New Zealand on a 7,000-mile survey flight to establish a commercial route.

April 3 — President Roosevelt sets aside 960 acres near Fairbanks, AK, as prospective site for the Army's proposed $10,000,000 air base.

April 28 — Pan American Airways' Clipper arrives at Hong Kong, completing the first commercial flight across the Pacific.

April 28 — Bureau of Air Commerce is completely reorganized with seven divisions set up under Director of Air Commerce Frederick D Fagg. Howard Rough is appointed Assistant Director.

May — Col Charles A Lindbergh's boyhood home at Little Falls, MN, is restored and made the center of Lindbergh State Park, which entertained more than 64,000 visitors last year.

May 6 — The Hindenburg, famous German dirigible, is destroyed by fire and explosion of unknown origin during landing proceedings at Lakehurst, NJ. 36 people lose their lives and many others sustain serious injuries.

May 9-14 — H T Merrill and S Lambie make the first successful round-trip flight between New York and London and set FAI course record for the route.

May 16 — Glenn L Martin celebrates the 25th anniversary of the first round trip overwater flight by flying in a Martin Clipper over his original route from Los Angeles to Catalina Island and return.

May 20-July 3 — Amelia Earhart Putnam and Fred Noonan, making their second attempt at a leisurely round-the-world flight, disappear somewhere between New Guinea and Howland Island in the mid-Pacific, on the homeward flight. No trace is found of them despite repeated search.

May 23 — Bureau of Air Commerce begins work on an estimated $5,000,000 airways modernization program covering 23,000 miles of Government-controlled airways.

May 29 — "Art" Chester wins the 50-mile free-for-all race on the opening day of the Air Races at St Louis, with a speed of 253.5 mph.

May 29 — Louise Thaden sets a women's US National speed record for 100 kilometers of 197.958 mph in a Whirlwind-powered Beechcraft, at St Louis Races.

June 16 — Commercial air service between Bermuda and New York is inaugurated by Pan American Airways and Imperial Airways, of England, operating jointly.

June 25—Richard Archbold, research associate of American Museum of Natural History, makes the first nonstop flight across the continent by an amphibian, flying a PBY-1 Catalina flying boat from San Diego, CA, to New York in 17 hr, 3 min, 30 sec.

June 27 — A $46,000 school building is erected at the spot where Wiley Post made his first parachute jump in 1922, by his old friends of Maysville, OK, as a memorial to the famous aviator.

July 5-6 — Pan American Airways and Imperial Airways make joint survey flights across the North Atlantic prior to establishing transatlantic service. The flights of both airplanes are successful, marking the eleventh and twelfth successful nonstop transatlantic flights completed out of 85 attempts that have been made in the past.

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July 21 — Clyde Pangborn, American aviator, is detained for two days in Moscow for flying into Soviet Russia without a passport visa.

July 26 — Jacqueline Cochran sets women's US National speed record for 100 kilometers of 203.895 mph in a Wasp-powered Beechcraft

September 3-6 — National Air Races are held at Cleveland, where Rudy A Kling wins the Thompson Trophy Race in a Menasco-powered Folkerts, with an average speed of 256.91 mph for the 200-mile course.

September 19 — Roscoe Turner establishes a US National speed record of 289.908 mph for 100-kilometer course, flying his Laird-Turner racer at Detroit.

September 20 — Airmail service between US and Paraguay is opened.

September 21 — Jacqueline Cochran establishes a new women's world speed record of 292.271 mph, flying a Seversky monoplane at Detroit.

September 30 — Navy's newest carrier, USS Yorktown, with a capacity for 72 airplanes, is commissioned at Newport News.

November 1 — Revised Civil Air Regulations go into effect.

December 3 — Major Alexander P de Seversky flies from New York to Havana, Cuba, in 5 hr, 2 min, 51 sec, breaking former record of "Lou" Reichers established in 1931.

December 29 — Pan American Airways inaugurates commercial transpacific service between Aukland, New Zealand, and San Francisco, using a Sikorsky S-42 Clipper.

Robert Collier Trophy for 1937 is awarded to the US Army Air Corps for having designed, supervised the construction of, and completely equipped the XC-35 substratosphere plane, the first pressure cabin airplane to be extensively flown successfully anywhere in the world.

The Sylvanus Albert Reed Award for 1937 is presented by the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences to Eastman N Jacobs "for his contribution to the aerodynamic improvement of airfoils used in modern military and commercial aircraft"

The Daniel Guggenheim Medal for 1937 is awarded to Dr Hugo Eckener.

Exports of aeronautical equipment in the first 10 months of this year were valued at $31,088,911, establishing a new record for any one year.

Tricycle landing gear, used on many midget planes, is practically applied to conventional full-size airplanes this year.

3,187 airplanes and 6,014 airplane engines are delivered during this year, marking the first peacetime year in which deliveries total more than $100,000,000.

The air lines of the US fly 102,996,355 miles and carry 1,580,412 passengers during 1937.


Abrams Aircraft Corp is formed by Talbert Abrams, Lansing, MI, to build an aerial photographic plane, designated the Explorer.

Alcor Aircraft Corp is formed at Oakland, CA, by Allan Loughead.

Bell Aircraft Corp, Buffalo, produces its first airplane, the XFM-1 Airacuda. (See illus)

Boeing Aircraft Co devotes the year to the production of large four-engined aircraft only, building the XB-15, YB-17 bomber, Model 314, and the 307 pressurized cabin Stratoliner.

Consolidated Aircraft Corp produces a huge four-engined flying boat, the XPB2Y-1, in which retractable floats, integral fuel tanks, stressed-skin wing construction, two-row radial power plants, constant-speed propellers, and internally braced fuselage construction are successfully applied to the flying boat. The commercial version of this boat, capable of carrying 30 passengers, is designated the Model 29 Coronado.

Crusader Aircraft Corp, Denver, undergoes a reorganization program.

Curtiss-Wright Corp is awarded a War Department contract July 6 for 210 pursuit airplanes costing $1,413,550.

Dart Mfg Corp is formed at Columbus, OH, to manufacture the Dart Model G, which was originally the Monosport built by Monocoupe Corp from whom Dart purchases the designs.

Douglas Aircraft Co, Inc, continues building DC-3 transports and produces the TBD-1 dive bombers for the Navy and the B-18 bomber for the Army. [TBD was a torpedo bomber designation – the TBD-1 Devastator was in production in 1937. Douglas' SBD Dauntless dive bomber was not introduced until 1940. —JLM]

Fairchild Aircraft Corp builds the 24J four-place cabin monoplane, the deluxe model of which is equipped with flaps.

Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp moves into its own well-equipped factory at Bethpage, LI, and produces the G-21 Gulfhawk amphibian. The military versions of this ship are the Army's OA-9 and the Navy's JRF.

Howard Aircraft Corp is organized at Chicago to manufacture the DGA-8 and DGA-9, latest designs of Ben O Howard.

Hughes Aircraft Co, Hollywood, CA, produces a single-seater racing monoplane under the direction of Howard Hughes.

Interstate Aircraft & Engineering Corp is organized at Los Angeles.

Jones Aircraft Corp, Schenectady, NY, introduces a two-place light cabin monoplane.

Lockheed Aircraft Corp designs a new, fast combat fighter plane for the Army, designated the P-38 Lightning, and produces a new eleven-passenger transport, the Lockheed 14.

The Glenn L Martin Co, in addition to continuing production for the US Army and Navy, receives an order for $4,300,000 covering 35 bombers for the Argentine government.

Miller Aircraft Corp is formed at Springfield, MA, to build a series of light touring monoplanes designated the Zeta, Models Z-1, Z-2, and Z-3.

National Motors Corp, Indianapolis, produces a two-seater light cabin monoplane of a patent design called Model S-125.

North American Aviation receives an order from the Argentine government for 30 airplanes similar to designs being produced for the Army Air Corps.

Northrop Corp is dissolved on September 8 by Donald W Douglas because of a strike by employees which disregarded the wage agreement signed in March.

Piper Aircraft Corp is organized by W T Piper at Lock Haven, PA, as successor to Taylor Aircraft Co of Bradford, PA, this latter plant having suffered from disastrous fire earlier this year.

Rearwin Airplanes, producers of the Rearwin Speedster and Sportster, buys all of the assets of the LeBlond Aircraft Corp, Cincinnati.

Security Aircraft Corp, which took over the Security National Aircraft Corp of Glendale, CA, builds the Airster at its new factory in Long Beach, CA.

Seversky Aircraft Corp, whose amphibians hold seven world's speed records, produces the P-35 for the Army.

Sikorsky Aviation Corp sells eleven Sikorsky twin-engined amphibians to the Navy at a cost of $1,960,790.

Swallow Aircraft Corp, Wichita, KS, builds a two-place light cabin monoplane called the Coupe.

Taylor Aircraft Co's plant burns down and W T Piper reorganizes the company at Lock Haven, PA, as the Piper Aircraft Corp. Company produces the popular Piper Cub. (See illus)

Taylor-Young Airplane Co is formed at Alliance, OH, to take over the Taylorcraft Aviation Co organized by C G Taylor last year. Taylor is President of the new firm, which builds the Model A Taylorcraft (See illus)

United Aircraft Corp shows a consolidated net profit of $3,856,272 for the year.

Vega Airplane Co is organized at Burbank, CA, by Robert E Gross, President of Lockheed, and associates, to build small commercial airplanes in a plant located 3 miles from the main Lockheed plant.

Waterman Arrowplane Corp introduces the Arrowbile, a combination airplane and automobile. (See illus)

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January 1 — There are now 17,681 licensed pilots in the US, of which 494 are women.

January 1 — $101,000,000 have been spent by Government relief agencies in the 5 years preceding this date in the construction and equipment of airports.

January 1 — Pan American Airways' Clipper Samoan, commanded by Capt Edwin C Musick, with a crew of six other Americans, is destroyed by fire and explosion in the Samoan Islands, killing all on board.

January 26 — T P Wright is elected President of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences for 1938, succeeding Dr Clark B Millikan, 1937 President.

January 29 — Gerald Vultee, designer of Lockheed and Vultee planes, and his wife crash in burning plane in Arizona.

February 8 — The first license for the export of helium to be used in a foreign dirigible is granted to the American Zeppelin Transport, Inc, acting as agent for the German Zeppelin Co.

February 12 — J W Cannon, III, member of the North Carolina cotton textile family, is killed in an airplane crash.

February 17 — International Harmon Trophies for outstanding achievements in 1937 are awarded to Howard Hughes, Jacqueline Cochran, and "Dick" Merrill.

February 26 — Secretary Ickes approves purchase by the Federal Government of helium plants at Dexter, KS, thereby giving the Government a virtual monopoly on this rare gas.

March 25 — Frank H Robertson, former President of the Robertson Aircraft Corporation of St Louis and one of the backers of Col Charles A Lindbergh on his transatlantic flight, dies in Phoenix, AZ, at the age of 42.

April 2 — Fire of undetermined origin destroys No 1 hangar at Miami Municipal Airport, destroying 14 airplanes and causing loss estimated at $700,000.

April 3 — The US Army's XB-15 superbomber makes its first flight over New York City as part of Army Week program.

April 16 — Wright Brothers' home and bicycle shop, moved to Henry Ford's Greenfield Village, Dearborn, MI, is formally dedicated.

April 16 — Denis Mulligan is named Director of the Bureau of Air Commerce to succeed Fred D Fagg, Jr.

April 22 — Capt E V Rickenbacker purchases Eastern Air Lines from North American Aviation, Inc, for $3,500,000.

May 11 — Secretary Ickes' refusal to permit the sale of helium to Germany is upheld by President Roosevelt.

June 6 — Congress passes bill authorizing an increase in the enlisted strength of the US Army Air Corps from 18,400 to 21,500 men.

June 6 — Daniel Guggenheim Medal for 1938 is awarded to A H R Fedden "for contributions to the development of aircraft engine design and for the specific design of the sleeve valve aircraft engine."

June 12 — Frederick W Neilson, former President of Sikorsky Aircraft Co, dies at Boca Raton, FL, at the age of 42.

June 13 — President Roosevelt signs the Army Supply Bill setting aside approximately $120,000,000 for aviation, $19,000,000 of which is for the purchase of 476 new airplanes.

June 23 — President Roosevelt signs the bill creating the Civil Aeronautics Authority, consisting of five members, an Executive Administrator, and a three-man Safety Board.

July 1 — The War Department awards contracts for fighting airplanes and equipment totaling $14,443,196, the largest order for air-fighting equipment ever given in the peacetime history of this country.

July 4 — Paul Mantz, in a Lockheed Orion, flies from Wichita, KS, to Los Angeles in the record time of 7 hr, 11 min, 5 sec.

July 7 — Edward Noble is appointed Chairman, and Clinton M Hester is appointed Administrator, of the Civil Aeronautics Authority by President Roosevelt. The other four members appointed are Harllee Branch, G Grant Mason, Robert H Hinckley, and Oswald Ryan.

July 8 — There are now 2,364 airports and landing fields in the US and Alaska, of which 715 are partly or fully lighted for night use.

July 10-14 — Howard Hughes, with a crew of four men, flies around the world, covering 14,791 miles in a Lockheed 14 monoplane, in 3 days, 19 hr, 8 min, 10 sec.

July 17-18 — Douglas G Corrigan, in his 9-year-old, $900 Curtiss Robin, flies nonstop from Floyd Bennett Field, NY, to Dublin, Ireland, in 28 hr, 13 min

July 19 — The Bureau of Air Commerce suspends the experimental license of Douglas G Corrigan in the fear that the intrepid aviator might attempt the hazardous westward flight across the Atlantic from Dublin.

August 9 — Mayor La Guardia orders suspension of all New York City permits for flight over the city of airplanes towing advertising banners.

August 15 — A monument to Will Rogers and Wiley Post is dedicated near the spot where they crashed at Point Barrow, AK.

August 17 — Orville Wright, Dr Joseph S Ames, Edward P Warner, Col Charles A Lindbergh, and Comdr Jerome C Hunsaker are reappointed by President Roosevelt as members of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Edward J Noble, Clinton M Hester, and Prof Vannevar Bush are added as new members.

August 22 — The Civil Aeronautics Act, which coordinates all nonmilitary aviation under the Civil Aeronautics Authority, becomes effective.

August 23 — Comdr Frank Hawks and Hazard Campbell are burned to death when their Gwinn Aircar strikes electric wires in takeoff at East Aurora, NY.

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August 29 — Major Alexander de Seversky, flying a Seversky pursuit plane, makes an east-west transcontinental speed record of 10 hr, 3 min from New York to Los Angeles.

September 3-5 — National Air Races are held at Cleveland, OH.

September 3 — Jacqueline Cochran wins the Bendix Trophy Race, flying the 2,042 miles from Burbank, CA, to Cleveland in 8 hr, 10 min, 31 sec. She continues on to New York City, establishing a women's west-east transcontinental record of 10 hr, 27 min, 55 sec.

September 4 — Anthony ("Tony") Levier wins $12,000 and sets a new record for the Greve Trophy Race, when he covers the 200-mile course at an average speed of 250.88 mph.

September 5 — Thompson Trophy Race at Cleveland is won by Col Roscoe Turner, flying his Turner-Laird Special at an average speed of 283.41 mph around the 300-mile course.

September 12 — A wind tunnel, capable of simulating flying conditions from sea level to 37,000 ft, is dedicated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as a memorial to Orville and Wilbur Wright.

September 21 — Major Gen Oscar Westover, Chief of the Army Air Corps, and Sgt Samuel Hynes are instantly killed in a crash of their Northrop attack plane near Burbank, CA.

September 29 — Brig Gen Henry H Arnold is named Chief of the Army Air Corps to succeed Major Gen Oscar Westover.

November 19 — Construction begins on the new $10,000,000 Government airport at Washington, DC.

November 29-30 — "Johnny" Jones establishes a record for planes weighing less than 700 lbs when he flies nonstop from Los Angeles to New York in a Piper Cub in 30 hr, 37 min.

December 15 — Department of Labor fixes minimum wage for employees of the aircraft industry at $0.50 an hour, or $20 a week for 40 hr.

December 17 — Dr. Hugh L Dryden, National Bureau of Standards, delivers second Wright Brothers Lecture at Columbia University, New York City.

December 28 — National Aeronautic Association names Howard Hughes as the most outstanding US aviator in 1938.

The Robert J Collier Trophy for 1938 is awarded to Howard Hughes and his associates for their epoch-making round-the-world flight.

Domestic air lines fly nearly half a million passengers 19,140,000 passenger-revenue miles without a passenger fatality.

3,623 airplanes, of which 1,823 are civil and 1,800 are military, are produced for domestic consumption in US this year.


Aircraft Mechanics Association is formed in San Diego, CA, by a group of Consolidated Aircraft employees to build a monoplane designed by C C Flagg.

Argonaut Aircraft, Inc, Tonawanda, NY, is taken over by the White Aircraft Co, Inc.

Aviation Corp and its subsidiaries report a net profit of $402,062 for the first 9 months of this year.

Aviation Mfg Corp elects Wellwood E Beal, President. The corporation includes Vultee Aircraft Corp, Stinson Aircraft Corp, and the Lycoming Aircraft Engine Co.

Batwing Aircraft Corp, Alameda, CA, builds a tailless monoplane designed by Walter F McGinty.

Bell Aircraft Co, Buffalo, NY, receives a $3,168,265 order from the War Department for 13 Airacuda fighting planes.

Boeing Airplane Co, Seattle, WA, announces a change in its corporate structure, which makes the Stearman Aircraft Co, of Wichita, KS, a division of Boeing Airplane Co. Boeing Aircraft Co is the Seattle manufacturing subsidiary of Boeing Airplane Co.

Consolidated Aircraft Corp, in addition to building numerous flying boats for the US Navy, produces a large twin-engined flying boat for American Export Airlines, Inc.

Douglas Aircraft Co, Inc, produces the DC-4, a 42-passenger, four-engined transport. (See illus)

Engineering & Research Corp, Washington, DC, puts into production the airplane designed by Fred Weick, formerly of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and now Chief Engineer of this corporation.

Federal Aircraft Corp, of New Jersey, produces a two-place, primary training biplane.

Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp, Bethpage, LI, is awarded $1,412,916 contract by the War Department for 26 Model G-31 amphibian airplanes with spare parts.

Interstate Aircraft & Engineering Corp is taken over by new management with Don P Smith, President, and Walter A Hite, Vice-President of Engineering.

Kinner Airplane & Motor Co, Glendale, CA, is in hands of receiver and produces no new models this year.

Lockheed Aircraft Corp receives order from Imperial Airways, London, for a fleet of Lockheed 14 airplanes, similar to the one used by Howard Hughes in his round-the-world flight. This company was also awarded contract by British government for 250, and by the Australian government for 50, military versions of this model, designated as B-14 or Hudson bombers.

The Glenn L Martin Co expands its plant to give 1,100,000 sq ft of floor space for manufacturing its long line of military and commercial airplanes.

Monocoupe Corp, Lambert Field, Robertson, MO, again goes into production of the Monocoach and type 90A monoplanes.

Naval Aircraft Factory, the only Government agency engaged in the building of airplanes, completes order of 185 training lanes.

Northrop Division of Douglas Aircraft Co, Inc, El Segundo, produces the A-17, BT-1, and 8A models formerly produced by the Northrop Corp.

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Phillips Aviation Corp, Los Angeles, continues development of the 1-B Aeroneer, a two-place cabin monoplane.

Piper Aircraft Corp builds 737 Cubs this year.

Pratt & Whitney Division, United Aircraft Corp, is awarded a contract for airplane engines amounting to $1,172,919.

Ryan Aeronautical Co produces the SC-150, three-place cabin plane.

Spencer-Larsen Aircraft Corp is formed at Farmingdale, LI, by P H Spencer and V A Larsen to build the SL-12C two-place pusher amphibian flying boat.

Stearman Aircraft Division, Boeing Airplane Co, builds attack bombers at its Wichita, KS, plant.

O W Timm Airplane Corp builds the T-840 commercial transport plane.

Vega Airplane Co, Burbank, CA (formerly known as the Airover Co, subsidiary of Lockheed Aircraft Corp), develops a cabin monoplane.

Vultee Aircraft Division is taken over by The Aviation Corp, refinanced, and placed in charge of Richard R Miller.

Wendt Aircraft Corp, North Tonawanda, NY, produces the Falconer, a two-place cabin monoplane.

White Aircraft Co, Inc, Tonawanda, NY, takes over the Argonaut Aircraft, Inc, with intention to produce a modified version of the Argonaut Pirate.

Wright Aeronautical Corp receives a contract from the Navy for $1,008,217 for 56 airplane engines and spare parts.


January 5 — Amelia Earhart is declared legally dead in Los Angeles Probate Court, and her husband, George Palmer Putman, is appointed executor of her estate.

January 15 — Fire destroys three large buildings at Chanute Field, with loss of more than $1,000,000.

January 16 — Major Gen Frank M Andrews, Chief of the General Headquarters Air Force of the Army, tells the annual convention of the National Aeronautic Association, in session at St Louis, that the US is a fifth- or sixth-rate air power and that General Headquarters Air Force has only slightly more than 400 fighting planes.

January 21 — Dr George W Lewis, Research Director of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, is elected President of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences for 1939.

January 24 — H Lloyd Child, test pilot for Curtiss-Wright, achieves a new record of 575 mph in a dive from 22,000 ft above Buffalo Airport in a Cyclone-powered Curtiss Hawk.

January 31 — Edward P Warner is appointed Economic and Technical Advisor of the Civil Aeronautics Authority.

February 2 — Sperry Gyroscope Company, Inc, Brooklyn, NY, is awarded the Gold Medal of the American Institute in recognition of its scientific achievements.

February 9 — Brig Gen Delos C Emmons is named Commander of the General Headquarters Air Force at Langley Field, VA, with the rank of Major General.

February 11 — Lt Ben S Kelsey, US Army Air Corps, makes a nonstop flight in a Lockheed P-38 pursuit plane from March Field, CA, to East Hempstead, LI, in 7 hr, 45 min, 36 sec.

March 4 — President Roosevelt requests Congress to appropriate $7,300,000 for use by the Civil Aeronautics Authority in training civilian pilots.

March 5 — Nonstop airmail system by pickup method is demonstrated at Coatesville, PA, by Norman Rintoul and Victor Yesulantes, flying Stinson Reliant planes.

March 18 — Ten men crash to their death near Alder, WA, when the new $500,000 experimental Boeing Stratoliner spins in on a test flight.

March 20 — Major Lester D Gardner is elected Honorary Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society in England, being the third American to receive this honor since the Society was founded in 1866.

March 24 — Jacqueline Cochran sets women's national altitude record of 30,052.43 ft in a Beechcraft airplane over Palm Springs, CA.

March 26 — The Yankee Clipper of Pan American Airways, with Capt Harold E Gray in command, flies from Baltimore to Europe with 21 passengers on survey flight.

March 26 — Capt John H Towers, US Navy, becomes Chief of Bureau of Aeronautics with the rank of Rear Admiral.

April 3 — The National Defense Act of 1940, authorizing 6,000 airplanes, increasing the peacetime strength of the Army Air Corps to 3,203 officers and 45,000 enlisted men, and appropriating $300,000,000 for the Air Corps, is signed by President Roosevelt.

April 3 — Clare W Bunch, President of the Monocoupe Corporation, establishes a new light-plane record by flying his Monocoupe from Roosevelt Field, LI, to Burbank, CA, in 25 hr, 27 min, 10 sec.

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April 4 — Capt Hugh L Willoughby, pioneer aviator, dies at the age of 82 at Stuart, FL.

April 4 — US Navy's new airplane carrier Wasp is launched at Quincy, MA.

April 12 — Edward Noble, Chairman of the Civil Aeronautics Authority, resigns and is succeeded as Chairman by Robert H Hinckley.

April 17 — Edward P Warner is named by President Roosevelt to become a member of the Civil Aeronautics Authority for a term expiring December 31, 1940.

April 20 — Walter Friedlander, President of the Aeronautical Corporation of America, dies in Cincinnati at the age of 64.

April 20-21 — Air Corps Materiel Division, Wright Field, Dayton, OH, begins experiments with a four-bladed controllable propeller installed on a Curtiss P-36.

April 23 — Civil Aeronautics Authority increases eligibility age for private pilot license from 16 to 18 years.

May 3 — Harvey Mummert, Vice-President and Chief Engineer of Mercury Aircraft Company, Inc, dies at Bath, NY.

May 10 — Howard Hughes becomes the largest stockholder in Transcontinental & Western Air, Inc.

May 10 — US Post Office Department starts airplane mail pickup service over routes covering 1,040 miles in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, and Delaware, letting the contract for 1 year to All American Aviation, Inc, of Wilmington,.DE.

May 17 — Dr George W Lewis and Major Lester D Gardner sail for London to attend the annual meeting of the Royal Aeronautical Society.

May 20 — The first North Atlantic airmail service is started by Pan American Airways between Port Washington, LI, the Azores, Portugal, and Marseille, France.

May 25 — President Roosevelt signs a bill providing for the purchase of 500 new Navy airplanes.

June 1 — The 42-passenger Douglas DC-4, world's largest landplane, makes its public appearance in a flight from Chicago to New York with 40 passengers aboard. (See illus p 66)

June 27 — President Roosevelt signs the bill empowering the Civil Aeronautics Authority to establish the Civilian Pilot Training Service for the purpose of training 95,000 civilian pilots over the next 5-year period.

July 1 — 26,144 pilots, 761 of whom are women, and 11,160 aircraft hold active certificates of license as of this date.

August 10 — War Department awards contract for $85,978,000 for various types of aircraft and aircraft engines.

August 12 — The Navy Department orders work started on five Pacific Island air bases.

August 22 — US aircraft and engine manufacturers have unfilled orders aggregating more than $300,000,000 at this time, as a result of Army, Navy, and foreign orders.

August 30 — Pan American Airways' California Clipper lands at Auckland, New Zealand, completing the first flight of a regularly scheduled fortnightly service from San Francisco, CA.

September — The 27th Pursuit Squadron, First Pursuit Group, Selfridge Field, MI, under the command of Capt Willis W Taylor, is chosen for the second consecutive time to represent the Army Air Corps in the National Air Races at Cleveland.

September 1-3 — Germany invades Poland. England and France declare War on Germany.

September 2 — The Bendix Trophy Race is won by Frank Fuller, Jr, who flies a Wasp-powered Seversky racer from Burbank, CA, to Cleveland and on to Bendix, NJ, in 9 hr, 2 min, 5 sec, averaging 217 mph.

September 4 — The Thompson Trophy Race is won for the third time by Col Roscoe Turner, who flies his Turner-Laird Special over the 300-mile course at an average speed of 282.53 mph.

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September 5 — President Roosevelt issues Neutrality Act Proclamation, locking millions of dollars worth of French- and British-ordered airplanes within the boundaries of the US.

September 5 — Airplane exports from the US reached record total of $12,136,845 in August, just before invocation of the Neutrality Act.

September 15 — Jacqueline Cochran, flying a Seversky monoplane, sets a new international speed record of 305.926 mph for 1,000 kilometers at Burbank, CA.

September 21 — 260 schools hold approved applications from the Civil Aeronautics Authority to train civilian pilots.

September 22 — National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics announces plans to build $10,000,000 aeronautical laboratory at Moffett Field, near Sunnyvale, CA.

September 26 — J Parker Van Zandt is appointed Economic and Technical Consultant to the Civil Aeronautics Authority.

October 13 — Dr Joseph S Ames, President Emeritus of The Johns Hopkins University, announces his resignation from the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics because of ill health.

October 13 — George Jackson Mead, United Aircraft Corporation, is appointed by the President to replace Dr Joseph S Ames on the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

October 15 — New York Municipal Airport, at North Beach, Queens, is officially dedicated as La Guardia Field.

October 24 — US Army Air Corps develops a new "fighting harness" that anchors the pilot to the seat but can be released instantly by pushing a button.

October 29 — Clyde Sehlieper and "Wes" Carroll establish an all-time refueling-endurance record by flying 726 hr (1 full month) over Long Beach, CA, in a Cub seaplane.

November 5 — The embargo against arms shipments to belligerents in the European War is lifted, releasing at least $170,000,000 worth of orders from France and Great Britain for American-built airplanes.

November 26 — The Daniel Guggenheim Medal for 1939 is awarded to Donald W Douglas, President of Douglas Aircraft Company, Inc, "for outstanding contributions to the design and production of transport airplanes."

December 21 — Brig Gen Walter G Kilner is appointed a member of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to replace Col Charles A Lindbergh, who recently resigned. Dr Jerome C Hunsaker is also reappointed to the Committee.

The Robert J Collier Trophy for 1939 is awarded to the air lines of the US for their high record of safety in air travel, with special recognition to Drs Walter M Boothby and W Randolph Lovelace, II, of the Mayo Foundation for Medical Research and Education, and Capt Harry G Armstrong of the US Army Medical Corps at Wright Field for their contribution to the safety record through their work in aviation medicine in general and pilot fatigue in particular.

The aircraft industry, now ranking 44th in size in the US, reaches the highest level of activity in the 30-year history of the industry, with production estimated at 75 per cent of capacity.

5,856 airplanes, having the value of $279,500,000, are produced this year.

Domestic transport air lines carried 2,100,000 passengers a total of 82,554,239 miles this year with only two fatal accidents.


Aero Research Co, headed by Eugene L Vidal, carries out experiments on the development of a molded plastic airplane in collaboration with Summit Aircraft Co, Bendix, NJ.

Akron Aircraft, Inc, is organized at Akron, Ohio, to build a light two-place cabin monoplane, developed by the Funk brothers.

American Aircraft Co is formed at Long Beach, CA, to take over assets of Security Aircraft Corp

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Aviation Mfg Corp (Lycoming Division), Williamsport, PA, receives $833,880 contract from the War Department for aircraft engines.

Barkley-Grow Aircraft Corp, Detroit, is acquired by the General American Transportation Corp and continues building the TST-1 twin-engined transport.

Bell Aircraft Corp builds the P-39 Airacobra for the Army Air Corps.

Bellanca Aircraft Corp elects Leighton W Rogers, Vice-President.

Boeing Aircraft Co builds 49 B-17A Flying Fortresses for the Army Air Corps and delivers six Clippers to Pan American Airways.

Brewster Aeronautical Corp signs an agreement with Consolidated Aircraft Corp whereby Brewster acquires all the design rights and jigs and fixtures of nine types of Army and Navy training and observation planes, manufactured up to now by Consolidated.

Chance Vought Aircraft and Sikorsky Aircraft, divisions of United Aircraft Corp, are consolidated as the Vought-Sikorsky Division, United Aircraft Corp.

Clark Aircraft Corp is formed by Col V E Clark at Hagerstown, MD, to build monoplanes of his own design.

Consolidated Aircraft Corp, San Diego, CA, delivers the XPBY-5A, the world's largest amphibian airplane, to the Navy. The Navy awards a contract, the largest single aircraft purchase in Naval history, to Consolidated for a fleet of the PBY-5A model.

Culver Aircraft Co, Columbus, Ohio, is formed to take over manufacturing and sales rights of the Dart Mfg Corp Model G light cabin monoplane.

Curtiss-Wright Corp introduces a new superperformance fighter plane and a 36-passenger transport. The Curtiss Propeller Division develops an electrically operated propeller for use especially on large, multiengined flying boats.

Douglas Aircraft Co, Inc, receives a $15,000,000 contract from War Department for production of a new design attack bomber, the B-18. Company continues to produce the DC-3 transport for air lines and develops a new 16-passenger light-traffic transport, designated the DC-5.

Fairchild Aviation Corp is reorganized and becomes the Fairchild Aircraft Division of Fairchild Engine & Airplane Corp Company produces the models 24W, 24R, and PT-19 trainers for the Army.

Fleetwings, Inc, Bristol, PA, introduces the Seabird, a four-place amphibian monoplane. (See illus p 68)

Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp is awarded a contract by the US Coast Guard for three eight-passenger amphibians.

Harlow Aircraft Co, Alhambra, CA, is formed to take over assets of the Harlow Engineering Corp and to manufacture the Harlow RIC-2, a four-place cabin monoplane. (See illus)

Hammond Aircraft Corp, San Francisco, CA, is formed to take over manufacturing facilities of Stearman-Hammond Aircraft Corp.

Howard Aircraft Corp, Chicago, announces plans to build 20,000-lb freight airplane of wood.

Kinner Airplane & Motor Corp, Ltd, Glendale, CA, sells the manufacturing rights to the Kinner Sportster and Sportwing to Timm Aircraft Corp.

Kinner confines itself now to the building of aircraft engines.

Lockheed Aircraft Corp produces large quantities of Hudson bombers for the British and, during the first 6 months of the year, exceeded $12,500,000 in aircraft sales.

Lycoming Mfg Co, subsidiary of the Auburn Automobile Co, merges with the Aviation Corp

The Glenn L Martin Co builds the Model 167 attack bomber, which is designated the Maryland.

McDonnell Aircraft Corp is organized by James S McDonnell at Robertson, MO, to manufacture military aircraft and parts.

North Pacific Aircraft Corp is formed at Seattle, WA, to build a light monoplane designated the Bicraft.

Northrop Aircraft, Inc, Hawthorne, CA, is organized by John K Northrop, who resigns from Douglas Aircraft to form the new company.

Ong Aircraft Corp, Kansas City, MO, produces the M-32W, four-place cabin monoplane.

Piper Aircraft Corp, whose latest model is designated the J-4, builds 1,806 Cubs this year.

Republic Aviation Corp, Farmingdale, LI, which replaces Seversky Aircraft Corp, is awarded $3,478,000 order for US Army pursuit planes.

Ryan Aeronautical Co's S-T trainers are adopted by US Army Air Corps and designated the PT-16 and PT-20. Company also introduces an observation plane, designated the YO-51 Dragon Fly. (See illus p 72)

St Louis Aircraft Corp is awarded a $139,419 contract by the War Department for training planes.

Seversky Aircraft Corp changes its corporate name to Republic Aviation Corp

Sikorsky Aviation Corp is merged with Chance Vought Aircraft Corp to become Vought-Sikorsky Division of United Aircraft Corp Company produces VS-43B 19-passenger amphibian flying boat.

Square D Co, electrical equipment manufacturers, extend their company activities into the aircraft instrument field by approving a merger with the Kollsman Instrument Co, Inc.

Stearman Aircraft, Division of Boeing, produces the PT-13A, primary trainer for the Army.

William B Stout, nationally known automotive and aeronautical engineer, designs a two-place cabin monoplane to be built of welded stainless steel.

Timm Aircraft Corp moves into its new factories at Van Nuys, CA, and experiments with the development of plastic-molded airplanes. Company purchases all rights to the Howard Hughes pursuit racer and the manufacturing rights for the Kinner Sportster and Sportwing.

Waco Aircraft Corp produces a series of aircraft for the Brazilian government.

Welch Aircraft Industries, South Bend, IN, builds a two-place light monoplane.

Wendt Aircraft Corp, Buffalo NY, manufactures a two-place cabin monoplane called the model W-2 Swift.

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January — 400 landplanes, under sponsorship of Gulf Oil Corporation, make tour to Miami, FL, for the All-American Air Maneuvers.

January 8 — The Army and Navy decide to fortify Alaska, with the Army building an air base at Anchorage, and the Navy rushing work on air bases at Kodiak and Sitka, in addition to a large Naval base at Dutch Harbor.

January 11 — S Paul Johnston, Editor of Aviation magazine, is appointed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics as Coordinator of Research, with headquarters in Washington.

January 19 — Major James H Doolittle is elected President of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences for 1940.

February 1 — Capt George E Price, US Army pilot, puts the Bell Airacobra through flight tests, achieving flying speeds of over 600 mph in dives.

February 16 — National Air Races, usually held in Cleveland in September, are canceled this year, because of the Army's inability to participate.

February 17 — Robert P Farnsworth, Vice-President of Curtiss-Wright Corporation, dies in New York at the age of 36.

March 16 — Charles H Monteith, 48, former Executive Vice-President and Chief Engineer of the Boeing Airplane Company, dies at his home in Seattle, WA.

March 21 — Pan American Airways takes delivery of the first of its fleet of new Boeing supercharged pressure-cabin passenger Stratoliners.

March 25 — The Army and Navy agree to stand aside to give France and Britain virtually unhindered access to the latest models of American warplanes, releasing to the Allies over 600 planes now under construction.

March 26 — Commercial air lines of United States complete today a full year of flying without a fatal accident or serious injury to a passenger or crew member.

April 6 — Major Carl B McDaniel, assisted by a crew of six, flies a Boeing Flying Fortress from New York to Washington over a prescribed course, with nothing but blind-flying instruments during takeoff, flight, and landing.

April 6 — Jacqueline Cochran sets new international speed record of 331.716 mph over a 200-kilometer course, flying a Republic P-35.

April 23 — Mayor F H La Guardia lays the cornerstone of the new air lines terminal building in New York City.

April 25 — National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics announces the naming of its new laboratory at Moffett Field, CA, the "Ames Aeronautical Laboratory," in honor of Dr Joseph S Ames, who served as Chairman of the Committee for 20 years.

April 27 — Eric Radke and William E Bowerman, both inspectors for the Civil Aeronautics Authority, are killed when the Sikorsky S-38 amphibian they are testing dives into Long Island Sound.

May 16 — President Roosevelt requests Congress to pass legislation making it possible to increase the aircraft industry's production capacity to 50,000 airplanes per year.

June 1 — Because of the international situation, President Roosevelt asks Congress for an additional billion dollars for Army and Navy civilian flight-training programs.

June 1 — US Army Air Corps announces plans for the construction of the world's most powerful wind tunnel at Wright Field, Dayton, OH.

June 4 — Major Gen Edward B Winans, member of the Army Court that tried Brig Gen William ("Billy") Mitchell in 1925, declares today that Europe's war Justifies General Mitchell's warning of 28 years ago and admits that General Mitchell had vision beyond that of most men of his time.

June 10 — The suit in which James V Martin, airplane designer, had accused virtually the entire aviation industry of banding together to drive him out of business, is kicked out of Federal Court.

June 13 — Navy awards a contract for construction of a new air base at Corpus Christi, TX, for use in training of pilots.

June 17 — T P Wright, Vice-President of Curtiss-Wright Corporation, is given leave of absence from his company to serve as Adviser to the National Advisory Commission, headed by William Knudsen, at Washington.

June 19 — Civil Aeronautics Authority announces the appointment of Jerome Lederer, Chief Engineer of Aero Insurance Underwriters, as Director of the Air Safety Bureau.

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June 21 — the first delivery by air of fighting planes direct from American to British territory is made when 55 Northrop A-17A attack bombers are flown from Mitchel Field, LI, to Halifax, Nova Scotia.

June 26 — Paul Kollsman and the Square D Company of Detroit make a gift of $50,000 to the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences for the establishment of a nation-wide aeronautical lending library.

July 1 — The Civil Aeronautics Authority becomes a part of the Commerce Department, and the Authority now becomes the Civil Aeronautics Board, directly under the authority of Harry L Hopkins, Secretary of Commerce.

July 8 — Major "Al" Williams, who after his resignation from the Navy took a commission in the Marine Corps Flying Reserve, resigns from the Marines.

July 9 — A Boeing Stratoliner of Transcontinental & Western Air, Inc, flies 15 passengers from Burbank, CA, to La Guardia Field in the record time of 12 hr, 18 min.

July 11 — Harllee Branch is appointed Chairman of the new Civil Aeronautics Board by President Roosevelt.

July 15 — There are now 2,655 airports, landing fields, and seaplane bases in the US.

July 29 — Wilbur R Kimbell, pioneer aeronautical inventor, and the one-time associate of Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas A Edison, dies in New York City at the age of 77.

August 18 — More than 32,000 students in ground schools and 17,000 in flight courses have been placed in the civilian flight-training program up to this time.

August 31 — War Department announces the awarding of contracts for 687 combat planes and 20,000 aircraft engines.

September — 81 American and Canadian pilots gather in Montreal, Canada, to form the first Transatlantic Ferry Group. Their first delivery consists of 26 Lockheed Hudson bombers, which they fly to England.

September 7 — A new instrument that permits an airplane to dispatch sketches, maps, and other data instantaneously to the ground is added to observation planes of the Air Corps.

September 8 — A puncture-proof gasoline tank is tested at Wright Field.

September 11 — War Department notifies airplane manufacturers to "tool up" in preparation for mass production orders to be placed in the near future.

September 12 — Jacqueline Cochran is awarded the Annual Trophy of the International League of Aviators, for 1939, as the outstanding woman pilot in the world.

September — American air squadron, called the Eagles Squadron and similar to the Lafayette Esquadrille in World War I, is organized in Great Britain by American volunteer fliers, headed by Charles Sweeney.

September 20 — Secretary Stimson announces that contracts have now been let for 9,174 Army planes.

September 26 — The aviation industry backlog throughout the US amounts to $2,000,000,000 at this time.

September 28 — The Defense Commission informs all airplane manufacturers that they cannot accept orders for commercial transport planes without the approval of the Commission.

September 29 — President Roosevelt lays the cornerstone of the Administration Building at the dedication of Washington's newest airport.

October 12 — Glenn L Martin, President of The Glenn L Martin Co, Baltimore, MD, is awarded the Daniel Guggenheim Medal "for contributions to aeronautical development and the production of many types of aircraft of high performance."

November 3 — Alexander P de Seversky is awarded Patent No 2,219,980 on his new design of pursuit-type airplane.

November 15 — 15,000 CIO union-member employees go on strike at Vultee Aircraft Company plant over refusal of the company to yield to a demand for a higher minimum wage.

November 17 — American Airlines installs a new highly successful deicer windshield wiper on its airplanes.

November 23 — "Ghost planes," remotely controlled by radio, are successfully employed as target planes at the Army's San Antonio air base.

November 25 — US Navy secretly perfects a torpedo capable of being fired from an airplane.

November 25 — National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics announces that it will erect an $8,400,000 engine research laboratory at Cleveland Municipal Airport.

November 26 — The Automotive Committee for Air Defense is organized at Detroit to make automotive resources available for the production of parts and subassemblies for the aircraft manufacturing industry.

November 27 — Vultee Aircraft Company workers end strike and return to work.

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December 5 — American aircraft manufacturers spend $83,356,580 on plant expansion for national defense this year and let contracts for $232,188,472 for additional facilities to be in operation within the next 6 months.

Robert J Collier Trophy for 1940 is awarded to Dr Sanford A Moss, of the General Electric Company, and to the Army Air Corps, for outstanding success in high-altitude flying by the development of the turbosupercharger.

The Sylvanus Albert Reed Award for 1940 is presented to Hugh L Dryden "for his contributions to the mechanics of boundary-layer flow and to the interpretation of wind-tunnel experiments."

2,959,480 passengers are carried by the domestic air lines this year.

A total of 12,871 airplanes are produced this year, of which 6,019 are military aircraft

3,532 airplanes are exported from the US during 1940.

Military aircraft engines of all types produced and accepted during the year total 22,667.

$786,088,562 are appropriated for Naval aviation during this year.

6,748 civil aircraft are produced in the US this year.

Total value of aeronautical exports during 1940 is $311,757,326.


AGA Aviation Corp, Willow Grove, PA, takes over the plant and assets of the Pitcairn-Larsen Autogiro Co

Aircraft Corp of La Porte, IN, purchases the assets of Welch Aircraft Industries, Inc, Wilkes-Barre, PA.

Aviation Mfg Corp, in which Harry Woodhead replaces Wellwood E Beal as President, in April, acquires the physical assets of the Barkley-Grow Aircraft Corp, Detroit.

Babcock Aircraft Corp, DeLand, FL, is organized to manufacture a two-place light monoplane.

Beech Aircraft Corp reports sales of $2,345,255 for the fiscal year ending September 30.

Bell Aircraft Corp, Buffalo, NY, produces 24 Airacobra fighters during the year and reaches a licensing agreement with Northrop Aircraft for production of this model on the West Coast.

Bennett Aircraft Corp is formed at Fort Worth, TX, to manufacture airplanes of plastic-plywood construction.

Boeing Aircraft Co builds 53 B-17s and eight model 307 Stratoliners at its Seattle plant. At Wichita, Boeing produces 590 military training planes.

Brewster Aeronautical Corp delivers 160 Buffalo fighters.

Cessna Aircraft Co, Inc, now produces military versions of its commercial airplanes, designated T-50, AT-8, and AT-17 Bobcat.

Clark Aircraft Corp, Hagerstown, MD, is acquired by Sherman M Fairchild and is renamed Duramold Aircraft Corp.

Colgate-Larsen Aircraft Co, Amityville, LI, succeeds the Spencer-Larsen Aircraft Corp, with Gilbert Colgate becoming President and V A Larsen, Vice-President and Chief Engineer. Development work on the CL-15, four-place amphibian, continues.

Collier Aircraft Corp produces the CA-1 Ambassador, light training biplane, at Wichita, KS.

Commonwealth Aircraft, Inc (formerly Rearwin Airplanes), produces 25 military airplanes at Kansas City.

Consolidated Aircraft Corp, San Diego, CA, embarks on a record expansion program and acquires all physical assets of the Hall-Aluminum Aircraft Corp, Bristol, PA. Employing 14,000 people as of December 31, the company has a backlog of approximately $325,000,000 on this date. Production for the year includes six B-24 Liberator bombers, 21 PBY-5 Catalina flying boats, one PB2Y-2 Coronado, and one model 28 flying boat, which is the only nonmilitary airplane delivered by the company this year.

Continental Motors Corp more than doubles its aircraft-engine production at Muskegon, MI, and incorporates a subsidiary in Virginia under the name of Continental Aviation & Engineering Corp.

Culver Aircraft Corp, Wichita, KS, introduces the two-place light cabin monoplane Cadet and converts for military production.

Curtiss-Wright Corp, merges with the Atlas Corp, $60,000,000 investment company, to speed output of war planes. Company starts construction of a new engine plant near Cincinnati and expands its plants at Buffalo and St Louis for the mass production of military aircraft 1,356 military planes are produced by Curtiss this year.

Douglas Aircraft Co, Inc, and subsidiary report a net profit of $10,831,971 for the year ending November 30. Receiving the largest military order ever placed with one company in America, Douglas places $75,000,000 worth of subcontracts with automotive and manufacturing concerns and starts building a $20,000,000 plant at Long Beach, CA. The models built by Douglas this year include the 8A; DC-5; R3D; SBD Dauntless; DB-7B Boston; B-18 Solo; B-23 Dragon; DC-3 Skytrooper; A-20; F-3; T-70; and the C-48, 49, 50, 51, 52, and 53 transports. Company also completes construction of the B-19, the world's largest experimental bomber. (See illus p 78)

Engineering & Research Corp reaches production stage of its all-metal, two-place Ercoupe. (See illus)

Fairchild Aircraft Division of Fairchild Engine & Airplane Corp produces 253 PT-19, PT-26, and M-62 Cornell trainers and 14 model F-24, UC-61, and GK-1 Forwarders for the military services.

Henry Ford reenters the aviation field, erecting an $11,000,000 plant in which to build Pratt & Whitney aircraft engines. Ford Motor Co receives initial contract from the War Department of $122,323,020 for 4,000 engines.

General Motors Corp enters the airplane propeller business through acquisition of assets of Engineering Products, Inc, Dayton, OH, which is now known as the Aeroproducts Division of the General Motors Corp.

Goodyear Aircraft Corp, Akron, OH, is organized to take over the former Goodyear Zeppelin Corp and to serve as subcontractor to a number of aircraft manufacturers.

Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp reports a backlog totaling $20,010,818 as of September 30. Company produces 145 military aircraft this year, including the F4F and G-36 Wildcat, the JRF and G-21 Goose, and the J2F Duck. It also develops a new twin-engined pursuit plane known as the Skyrocket and builds J4F-1 versions of the G-44 Widgeon for the Coast Guard.

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Hall-Aluminum Aircraft Corp, Bristol, PA, starts construction of an $8,000,000 factory in Dallas, TX, when the name, goodwill, and physical assets of the company are purchased by Consolidated Aircraft Corp.

Harlow Engineering Co, Alhambra, CA, acquires a one-half interest in the Porterfield Aircraft Corp.

Interstate Aircraft & Engineering Corp, Aircraft Mfg Division, enters the airplane manufacturing field with a light two-place cabin monoplane called the Cadet. (See illus p 71)

Lockheed Aircraft Corp builds a $3,500,000 subsidiary plant, takes over the Union Air Terminal at Burbank, and builds a $150,000 wind tunnel at its Burbank factory. During the year, the company produces 386 military aircraft, including 170 Hudson bombers; 164 B-14s; and 45 P-38 Lightnings and C-56, 57, 59, 60, and 66 model Lodestars.

Los Angeles Aircraft Corp is formed by E Buckley at Los Angeles, CA, to manufacture airplane and subassembly parts.

Luscombe Airplane Corp, West Trenton, NJ, doubles its volume of sales of Phantoms this year.

The Glenn L Martin Co, with a backlog of $110,000,000 on June 30, and a receipt of Army and Navy contracts totaling more than $205,000,000 received during the past 6 months, faces the biggest year in its history. During 1940, Martin produces 225 A-22 and model 167 Marylands, two B-10 bombers, and 10 PBM Mariner flying boats and develops a new twin-engined bomber, the B-26.

Mercury Aircraft Co, Inc, Menominee, MI, builds the B-100 four-place cabin biplane and the BT-120 two-place trainer.

Meyers Aircraft Co, Inc, Tecumseh, MI, produces the OTW two-place training plane.

Monocoupe Airplane & Engine Corp is organized to take over assets of the Monocoupe Corp, Robertson, MO. Company is later dissolved.

Naval Air Factory at Philadelphia builds 227 N3N Navy airplanes this year.

North American Aviation, Inc, Inglewood, CA, starts construction of a subsidiary plant at Dallas, TX. The company, which produced 1,245 military airplanes this year, receives the largest single Army aircraft contract for 1941, aggregating $11,335,631, to build 700 training planes. Produced this year are the AT-6 and SNJ Texan, the BT-14 Yale, the O-47, A-27, and P-64.

Packard Motor Car Co agrees to build Rolls-Royce Merlin engines in this country and erects a new building in which to construct the 9,000 engines initially contracted.

Phillips Aviation Co, Los Angeles, CA, acquires the entire engine business of the Glenn L Martin Motor Co.

Piper Aircraft Corp doubles the size of its plant and produces 3,016 Cubs this year.

Pitcairn Autogiro Co of America develops a new all-metal autogiro for the Army.

Republic Aviation Corp undertakes a $9,000,000 plant expansion program at Farmingdale, LI, and initiates a program of training 8,000 new aircraft workmen. During 1940, Republic produces 102 P-35 pursuit planes, 49 AT-12 advanced trainers, and two P-43 Lancer fighters.

Ryan Aeronautical Co builds 149 Recruit training planes, models STC-5, STM-2, PT-20, 21, and 22, and develops the YO-51 Dragon Fly, three of which are built. (See illus p 72)

St Louis Aircraft Corp produces 13 YPT-15 military training planes.

Southern Aircraft Corp, Garland, TX, introduces a two-place training biplane, designated the BM-10.

Spartan Aircraft Co, Tulsa, OK, heretofore producers of commercial airplanes exclusively, builds its first military airplane, the NS-1 training biplane, for the Navy.

Stinson Aircraft Division of the Aviation Mfg Corp is taken over by Vultee, and is known as Stinson Aircraft Division of Vultee Aircraft, Inc. Company continues production of the three-place Voyager.

Timm Aircraft Corp, Van Nuys, CA, builds the TT-175K and the N2T-1 Navy trainer. (See illus p 73)

Twentieth Century Aircraft, Inc, is organized by Col Roscoe Turner, Keith Rider, and William Schoenfeld at Los Angeles, to build aircraft of plastic-plywood construction.

United Aircraft Corp, reporting a total sales and operating revenue of $78,714,377 for the first 9 months of this year, has a backlog of unfilled orders amounting to $189,550,879. Eugene E Wilson is elected President of the corporation to succeed the late Donald L Brown.

US Plywood Corp manufactures molded airplane fuselages under license from the Aircraft Research Corp and Eugene L Vidal.

Vega Airplane Co, an affiliate of Lockheed Aircraft Corp, receives a $30,000,000 contract from the British government to build twin-engined Ventura bombers, the military version of the Lockheed Lodestar.

Vought-Sikorsky Division, United Aircraft Corp, completes 57 military aircraft during the year, 56 of which are the OS2U-1, 2, Kingfisher for the Navy. Igor Sikorsky develops the VS-300 experimental helicopter and produces one S-43 flying dreadnaught for the Navy.

Vultee Aircraft, Inc, acquires the Stinson Aircraft Division of the Aviation Mfg Corp, which also includes the former Barkley-Grow Aircraft Co.

Waco Aircraft Corp, Troy, OH, develops a military version of its commercial airplane and delivers three such craft (PT-14 and UPF-7) this year.

Welch Aircraft Industries, Inc, designers of the Welch O-2 monoplane, sells its assets to the Aircraft Corp of La Porte, IN.

Williams Aircraft Corp is incorporated at Toledo, OH, by Col Roger Williams, to build plastic-molded aircraft

Wilcox-Rich Division of the Eaton Mfg Co contributes to the progress of aircraft-engine development this year by producing the Rich valve in sodium-cooled form and by developing the Zero-Lash Hydraulic Valve Lifter.

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January 1 — At this time, there are 63,113 active licensed pilots in the US and 17,351 private and commercial airplanes.

January 4 — There are now 2,656 airports, landing fields, and seaplane bases in the US.

January 9 — Lt Andrew C McDonough, USNR, reaches a reported speed of 620 mph in a dive during tests of a Bell Airacobra pursuit ship.

January 11 — All-American Air Maneuvers open at Miami.

January 17 — Commercial Aircraft Priorities Committee is formally organized within the Office of Production Management (OPM) under the Chairmanship of Arthur B Whiteside.

February 5 — US Bureau of Standards simplifies measurement of height of clouds through development of a new photoelectric detector.

February 22 — The Navy awards a $9,000,000 contract for construction of a Naval air station at Bermuda.

February 27 — Capt Edward V Rickenbacker is injured in crash of an Eastern Airliner which kills seven persons, including the pilot and copilot, near Jonesboro, GA.

March 4 — An AFL strike halts expansion construction work at Wright Field.

March 6 — House of Representatives passes a resolution authorizing a special House committee of five members to make a full and complete investigation of all crashes of domestic airliners during the past 2 years.

March 12 — Secretary of the Navy Knox opens the new Air Training Station at Corpus Christi, TX.

March 17 — Chanute Field, IL, is converted by the War Department into an Army Air Corps training center.

March 20 — Civil Aeronautics Board reports 907 schools now giving instruction in ground and air work under the Civilian Pilot Training Program.

March 21 — National Air Races, usually held in Cleveland in September, are deferred again this year.

March 22 — The War Department again rejects a Congressional proposal to create a separate and independent air force.

March 25 — Edward P Warner goes to London to act as aviation aide to W Averell Harriman, President Roosevelt’s personal representative in England.

March 29 — Senate Appropriations Committee inserts amendment to defense bill increasing the Civilian Pilot Training Program from 7,000 to 30,000 trainees.

March 30 — Civil Aeronautics Board announces that private flying has established an all-time safety record, with only one fatality to every 991,482 miles flown.

April — A growing shortage of fabricated aluminum slows down the production of airplanes.

April 6 — A Consolidated four-engined bomber, being delivered to the British, flies across the American continent in 9 hr and 57 min, with enough gasoline left to fly several additional thousand miles.

April 10 — Robert Lovett is appointed Assistant Secretary of War for Air.

April 16 — Igor I Sikorsky sets a national helicopter record by hovering virtually motionless over Stratford, CT, Airport, for 1 hr, 5 min. (See illus p 77)

April 20 — An elaborate demonstration of the air-raid warning and intercepting system developed by the Air Defense Command is put on at Mitchel Field, LI.

April 22—American Airlines, Inc, is awarded a special trophy for being the first air transport company to operate one billion passenger-miles without a fatality to passengers or crew.

May 1 — Navy announces that it now has 3,476 airplanes on hand.

May 6 — Igor I Sikorsky remains aloft in a helicopter at Stratford, CT, for 1 hr, 32 min, 49 sec.

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May 8 — Army Air Corps conducts test on a new pursuit airplane, the XP-47B, manufactured by Republic Aviation Corp. (See illus)

May 13 — War Department announces the opening of a new $11,353,649 air-bomb-testing range and airfield near Madison, IN.

May 27 — The strike by union workers at the plant of North American Aviation, Inc, Inglewood, CA, prompts President Roosevelt to issue a Proclamation declaring an unlimited national emergency and calling upon all loyal citizens in production for defense to give precedence to needs of the nation.

May 28 — The Office of Production Management allots aluminum to eleven light-plane manufacturers: Aeronca, Piper, Porterfield, Rearwin, Taylorcraft, Waco, Howard, Stinson, Interstate, Luscombe, and Meyers aircraft companies.

May 29 — Plans to train 8,000 British combat pilots and navigators in US Army Air Corps schools are announced by the War Department.

June 5 — Ferry Command, which will fly airplanes manufactured in this country across the ocean for delivery to the British, is organized by the Army Air Corps.

June — Jacqueline Cochran becomes the first woman to ferry a bomber across the Atlantic from Canada to the British Isles.

June 12 — Naval Aircraft Factory, Philadelphia, constructs several experimental gliders capable of carrying troops or cargo.

June 13 — Mayor La Guardia, of New York City, head of the new Office of Civilian Defense, appoints a special committee to coordinate participation of private planes, pilots, and owners in the Government's home defense program.

June 21 — W A M Burden resigns as Director of the National Aviation Corporation to serve with the Reconstruction Finance Corporation.

June 22 — War Department announces the reorganization of the US Army Air Corps, unifying its air activities in a new unit to be known as the Army Air Forces, with Major Gen H H Arnold as Chief.

June 28 —Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), with Dr Vannevar Bush, Chairman of NACA, as Director, is established by the President.

June 30 — The air lines to date have sacrificed 125 transport planes to the British.

July 1 — There are now 82,277 licensed pilots in the US, 2,733 of whom are women.

July 9 — Aircraft Labor Conference is held in Washington between representatives of the aircraft manufacturers, Army and Navy officials, and labor leaders, headed by Sidney Hillman, to discuss industry-labor relations affecting aircraft production.

July 23 — Dr Jerome C Hunsaker is appointed Coordinator of Research and Development for the Navy Department and will act as Chairman of the new Naval Research and Development Board.

July 30 — The principle of two propellers turning in opposite directions on a single shaft is being developed on several experimental high-speed military airplanes.

August 7 — Civil Air Regulations are amended to protect pilots who are outside the US by deferring expiration of their pilot certificates.

August 18 — Pan American Airways signs an agreement with the War Department whereby they will ferry warplanes for Britain to West Africa and thence to the Middle Eastern war zone.

August 28 — Artemus L Gates is nominated by the President to become Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Aeronautics.

September 1 — F A Galligan, Executive Vice-President and General Manager of Fairchild Aircraft Division, Hagerstown, MD, dies suddenly of acute embolism.

September 2 — Army Air Forces, not yet completely sold on the use of light planes, announces that it will award contracts for twelve Aeronca, Piper, Stinson, and Taylorcraft models for experimentation.

September 5 — Nine US Army Air Forces B-17 Flying Fortresses fly from Hawaii to the Philippines, the first mass flight of heavy bombers across the western Pacific.

September 6 — Civil Aeronautics Board establishes severe penalties for pilots flying over recently established restricted areas in the US.

September 13 — Southern California aircraft manufacturers grant a wage-scale increase affecting 60,000 workers and amounting to $65,000,000 a year.

October 1 — As of this date, there are 91,442 civilian pilots and 23,496 certificated airplanes in the US.

October 1 — US Navy announces that it now has 4,535 planes on hand, with 5,832 more being built.

October 7 — Ohio State Bureau of Aeronautics notifies all pilots in the state that a radio receiver is necessary before they can fly into any airport on which there are airline operations.

October 11 — Civil Aeronautics Board amends Civil Air Regulations to require certification of every pilot and aircraft in the US regardless of whether or not they are engaged in commercial activities.

October 16 — Army Air Forces announces delivery and flight testing of the first AT-11 and AT-9 twin-engined advanced training planes.

October 17 — The Navy awards contracts to Snead & Company, Orange, VA, for two 24-place gliders, and to Allied Aviation Corporation, Baltimore, and Schweitzer Aviation Corporation, Elmira, NY, for two twelve-place and ten two-place gliders, respectively.

October 22 — The Joint Aircraft Committee of Congress urges the greatly expanded usage of wood and plywood in aircraft production.

October 23 — War Department issues orders expanding the Army Air Forces to provide for a total of 84 combat groups, "to meet the growing requirements for adequate defense of the US and the area within the Western Hemisphere vital to that defense."

October 23 — Pan American Airways' Africa, Ltd, opens the transatlantic route from the US to Africa over which they intend to shuttle men, materials, and airplanes to the war fronts.

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October 24 — Arthur Starnes makes a record parachute descent when he jumps from 30,500 ft, and falls 5 miles in 1 min, 55 sec, before pulling the rip cord.

October 24 — The first successful true "flying wing," developed by Northrop Aircraft, Inc, is announced by the Army Air Forces. (See illus p 75)

October 27 — The post of Air Surgeon, with Col D N W Grant as Chief, Medical Division, is created within the Army Air Forces.

October 30 — Capt James W Chapman, Jr, US Army Air Forces, flies 24,700 miles, carrying members of the Harriman mission in a globe-circling flight from Washington, DC, to Moscow, Russia, and return, in a Consolidated B-24 bomber.

November 17 — Commerce Department officials announce that the Department will no longer disseminate total monthly export figures for aviation products.

November 21 — The Air Service Command is organized to replace the Army Air Corps Maintenance Command at Wright Field, Dayton, OH.

November 26 — President Roosevelt signs the Federal Defense Highway Bill, providing $10,000,000 for the construction of flight strips along US highways.

December 7 — Japan pulls a surprise air raid on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, doing heavy damage to the US Fleet and destroying the majority of military aircraft at Hickman Field.

December 8 — As the nation goes into declared war, all pilots' certificates, except those held by pilots flying scheduled airline routes, are suspended.

December 8 — Security measures restricting the disseminating of military information, as well as drastic steps to gear the aircraft industry for war production, are put into effect.

December 13 — The President issues a proclamation placing the War Department in complete control of civil aviation.

December 17 — Miami All-American Air Maneuvers, scheduled for January 9-11, are canceled for the duration of the War.

December 20 — Col Claire Chenault's Flying Tigers, based in Kunming, China, emerge victorious from their first combat with a flight of ten Japanese bombers.

December 23 — Hall L Hibbard, Vice-President and Chief Engineer of Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, is elected as President of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences for 1942, succeeding Frank W. Caldwell, Director of Research for United Aircraft Corporation, this year's President.

December 29 — Sherman M Fairchild establishes a fund of $25,000 with the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences for the publication of technical material used by aeronautical engineers, now restricted to a Government-approved list.

Robert Collier Trophy for 1941 is awarded to the Army Air Forces and the Air Lines of the US "for pioneering worldwide air transportation vital to immediate defense and ultimate victory."

The Daniel Guggenheim Medal for 1941 is awarded to Juan T Trippe for the development and successful operation of oceanic air transport.

The Sylvanus Albert Reed Award for 1941 is presented by the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences to Theodore von Karman "for development of a satisfactory theory of the influence of curvature on buckling characteristics of aircraft structures."

Outstanding developments in aviation this year include: the Civil Aeronautics Board's installation of ILS facilities for instrument landings at major airports; the development of a jet engine by General Electric Company, at the request of General Arnold; and the production of the first true "flying wing."

26,134 airplanes are produced this year. This includes 19,433 military aircraft of all types accepted during the year.

58,181 military aircraft engines are produced and accepted during 1941.


AGA Aviation Corp, Willow Grove, PA, produces seven military helicopters for the military services.

Aeronca Aircraft Corp, Middletown, OH (formerly Aeronautical Corp of America), increases its production approximately 28 per cent during the year and produces large quantities of Super Chief models, as well as YO-58 and L-3 Defenders for the Army.

Agawam Aircraft Products Co is organized by Albert Loening at Sag Harbor, LI.

Allied Aviation Corp is formed at Baltimore, MD, to produce molded plywood aircraft components. Ariel Aircraft, Inc, Coffeyville, KS, enters the aircraft field with production of a light two-place cabin monoplane.

Beech Aircraft Corp, Wichita, KS, concentrates on production of military aircraft, delivering a total of 255 of the following models: AT-7 and NB-2 Navigator; C-45 or JRB Expeditor; C-43 Traveller; AT-11 Kansan; and AT-10 Wichita.

Bell Aircraft Corp, Buffalo, NY, delivers 926 P-39 Airacobra fighters and one YFM model during the year.

Bellanca Aircraft Corp develops a hovering-type observation plane and produces three of these, the YO-50, for the War Department.

Bennett Aircraft Corp, Fort Worth, TX, is reorganized and name changed to Globe Aircraft Corp. Company produces a low-wing monoplane, known as the Swift.

Boeing Aircraft Co, Seattle, WA, produces 144 B-17 Flying Fortresses and completes the order of six model 314-A Clippers for Pan American Airways. 195 Havocs are also produced. At the Wichita plant, 2,062 PT -13, PT-17, PT-27, and N2S-1 Kaydet trainers are built for the Army and Navy.

Brewster Aeronautical Corp, Long Island City, NY, constructs a new plant at Johnsville, PA, where they produce SB-2A Buccaneers for the Navy and its export version, the Bermuda, for Great Britain and the Netherlands East Indies governments.

Buick Motor Co builds a $25,000,000 plant for the production of Pratt & Whitney aircraft engines.

Call Aircraft Co, Afton, WY, develops a light two-place cabin monoplane.

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Central Aircraft Corp, Keyport, NJ, takes over the plant formerly owned by the Aeromarine Plane & Motor Co, where it carries on experimental and development work.

Cessna Aircraft Co, Wichita, KS, building the C-145 and C-165 Airmaster and the T-50 twin-engined commercial plane, turns to military production, building 618 AT-8 and AT-17 Bobcat transports, military versions of the T-50 model.

Collier Aircraft Corp, Wichita, KS, introduces the Collier CA-1, two-place light training biplane.

Consolidated Aircraft Corp, San Diego, CA, concentrates on military orders, delivering 395 PBY-5 Catalina and four PB2Y-2 Coronado flying boats to the Navy, and 169 B-24 Liberator bombers to Britain and the US Army. Company starts erection of plants at Fort Worth, TX, and Tulsa, OK, under War Department contracts.

Culver Aircraft Corp, Wichita, KS, producers of the Culver LCA low-wing monoplane, is acquired by the Beech Aircraft Corp.

Cunningham-Hall Aircraft Corp, Rochester, NY, engages in subcontract work in connection with the defense program and ceases production of complete airplanes.

Curtiss-Wright Corp establishes the Curtiss Airplane Division to operate its plants in Buffalo, St Louis, and Columbus, where the company's airplane manufacturing facilities are increased approximately 400 per cent this year. At Buffalo, 2,532 P-40, P-36, SBC, and O-52 military airplanes are produced. The St Louis plant turns out 234 SNC, AT-9, and C-55 Army and Navy airplanes.

Douglas Aircraft Co, Inc, Santa Monica, CA, produces 978 DB-7 Havoc dive bombers and C-53 Skytrooper and C-68 transports. At its El Segundo plant, Douglas builds 335 of the 8A, A-24, and SBD Dauntless military models.

Eaglecraft Co, Ft Worth, TX introduces a high-wing tandem trainer monoplane.

Engineering & Research Corp, Riverdale, MD, manufacturers of the two-place Ercoupe, defer production of commercial airplanes until after the War and begin the manufacture of controllable-pitch propellers under the Schwartz license.

Fairchild Aircraft Division of Fairchild Engine & Airplane Corp, Hagerstown, MD, produces 912 PT-19, PT-26, and M-62 Cornell trainers for the Army and 51 F-24 Forwarders, designated by the Army as the C-61.

Fleetwings, Inc, Bristol, PA, develops the BT-12 stainless-steel basic trainer for the Army Air Forces.

Fletcher Aircraft Corp, Pasadena, CA, perfects a two-place primary trainer of plastic-plywood construction, model FBT-2.

Ford Motor Co begins construction of an aircraft factory at Willow Run, MI, where it plans to turn out Consolidated B-24 bombers on a mass-production basis.

Funk Aircraft Co is organized to replace Akron Aircraft, Inc, and a new plant is acquired at Coffeyville, KS, for contemplated production of the Funk Model B light cabin monoplane.

General Aircraft Corp, Lowell, MA, introduces a two-place cabin monoplane, designated the model GI-80 Skyfarer.

Goodyear Aircraft Corp builds a new plant where tail surfaces, wings, and fuselages for Martin bombers are to be built.

Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp completes construction of a new plant in Bethpage, LI, and produces 426 airplanes for the Navy, including models of the JRF Goose, F4F Wildcat, J4F Widgeon, and J2F Duck.

Howard Aircraft Corp, Chicago, IL, producing commercial models DGA-15 before the War, builds six GH-1 Nightingale liaison transports for the Navy.

Interstate Aircraft & Engineering Corp, El Segundo, CA, produces the Cadet primary trainer and completes designs for the S-3 Privateer, a two-place monoplane.

Kellett Autogiro Corp, Philadelphia, produces miscellaneous airplane parts on a subcontract basis and develops two experimental autogiros for the Army Air Forces.

Langley Aircraft Corp is formed at Port Washington, LI, to build cabin monoplanes of molded plastic-plywood construction.

Lockheed Aircraft Corp, Burbank, CA, produces more than $99,000,000 worth of airplanes during the first 9 months of 1941. The Burbank and Vega plants of Lockheed produce a combined total of 1,424 military airplanes, including: A-28 Hudsons; P-38 Lightnings; and C-57, C-59, and C-60 Lodestars.

Luscombe Airplane Corp, West Trenton, NJ, manufactures and delivers nearly 300 Model 8 Silvaire monoplanes up until the time of the War.

The Glenn L Martin Co, more than quadrupling its manufacturing facilities this year, builds 547 military aircraft: Models B-26 Marauder, A-22 Maryland, A-30 Baltimore, and PBM Mariner. In addition, the company produces an experimental model of the world's largest four-engined flying boat, the XPB2M-1 Mars. (See illus p 79)

Monocoupe Aeroplane & Engine Corp acquires ownership of the Bristol Aircraft Corp, Bristol, VA, and transfers its manufacturing operations to Orlando, FL, where it becomes known as the Monocoupe Aeroplane Division, Universal Molded Products Corp.

Morrow Aircraft Corp completes a new air-conditioned plant at San Bernardino, CA, where it undertakes development of plastic-bonded plywood construction training monoplanes.

Naval Aircraft Factory, Philadelphia, produces 589 N3N and 22 SBN Naval airplanes.

North American Aviation, Inc, opens a wholly owned subsidiary plant near Dallas, TX, called North American Aviation, Inc, of Texas. It also builds a new bomber assembly plant at Kansas City. At Inglewood, company produces 1,841 military aircraft during the year comprised of AT-6 and SNJ Texan trainers, B-25 Mitchell bombers, and Models A-27 and NA-26. At Dallas, 711 Texan AT-6 and SNJ trainers are turned out.

Northrop Aircraft, Inc, produces and delivers 24 N-3PB patrol bomber seaplanes for the Norwegian government.

Piper Aircraft Corp, which has stepped up production to 400 airplanes per month, delivers 44 military versions of the J-5 series, designated the L-4 (O-59A) Grasshopper.

Pitcairn Autogiro Co, Willow Grove, PA, develops an autogiro capable of carrying heavy loads of depth charges.

Platt-LePage Aircraft Co is formed at Eddystone, PA, to develop rotary-wing aircraft for the Army.

Republic Aviation Corp, Farmingdale, LI, produces the first P-47 Thunderbolt and delivers 160 YP-43 and P-43 Lancer fighters, six P-35, and three AT-12 models.

N B Rich Airplane Co, Springfield, MA, is organized to build twin-engined cabin monoplanes, but because of national defense program company fails to get into quantity production.

Ryan Aeronautical Co goes into quantity production of its ST-3 trainers, producing 607 military versions, designated PT-20, 21, and 22 Recruit by the Army, and NR-1 by the Navy.

Spartan Aircraft Co, Tulsa, OK, produces 76 NP-1 military aircraft this year.

Stearman Aircraft, which delivers its one-thousandth trainer for the Army in March of this year, is now known as the Wichita Division of the Boeing Airplane Co.

Stinson Aircraft Division of Vultee Aircraft, Inc, adds 80,000 sq ft of floor space for manufacturing facilities and produces the YO-54 Voyager and the AT-19 Reliant.

Stout Skycraft Corp, of which William B Stout is President, engages entirely in research and development of a small stainless steel airplane and a special aircraft engine, at Dearborn, MI.

Studebaker Corp, automobile manufacturer, starts building Wright "2690" [sic] aircraft engines on a War Department contract. [Studebaker advertising emphasized their production of R-1820 engines for B-17s. The WWWeb does not provide a reference for Studebaker having built R-2600 engines. —JLM]

Summit Aeronautical Corp, Bendix, NJ., introduces the HM-5 light cabin monoplane under the Vidal process, on which it holds a license.

Taylorcraft Aviation Corp, Alliance, OH, converts its light plane for military usage and delivers 24 L-2 Grasshoppers to the Army.

Universal Moulded Products Corp is formed in New York to take over operations of the Monocoupe Aeroplane & Engine Corp, the Bristol Aircraft Division Works, and the Bristol Aircraft Products, Ltd, of Belleville, Ontario.

Vega Airplane Co becomes a fully owned subsidiary of Lockheed Aircraft Corp, and its name is changed to Vega Aircraft Corp. The firm produces 25 B-34 and L-37 Ventura bombers this year.

Vought-Sikorsky Division of the United Aircraft Corp completes three giant VS-44 flying boats Excalibur for American Export Airlines, and produces 632 fighter, dive bomber, and observation planes for the US Navy and the British government. These models are designated OS2U Kingfisher, SB2U Vindicator and Chesapeake, and F4U Corsair.

Vultee Aircraft, Inc, builds a new division plant in Nashville, TN. In California, the company produces 1,841 BT-13 and SNV Valiant trainers for the Army and Navy and 71 P-66 pursuit planes.

Waco Aircraft Corp completes two military versions of its commercial models, known as the PT-14 or UPF-7 and the KS model.

White Aircraft Corp, Palmer, MA, develops four different commercial airplanes: a two-place training biplane; an advanced training monoplane; a general-purpose biplane; and an amphibian flying boat.

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January 1 — There are now 100,787 certified civilian pilots in the US.

January 6 — President Roosevelt, in his message to Congress, requests budget appropriations to cover production of 185,000 airplanes in 1942 and 1943.

January 10 — Army announces delivery of its first transport gliders.

January 15 — L Welch Pogue is sworn in as Chairman of the Civil Aeronautics Board.

January 19 — Priorities for civilian passenger travel on domestic air lines are now required, by an order taking effect today.

January 19 — Navy Department announces establishment of a Naval air-transport service (NATS) to carry personnel and cargo in connection with Navy operations.

February 17 — War Production Board restricts sales of light planes to Government agencies only, or to persons approved by the WPB.

February 20 — Lt Edward ("Butch") O'Hare, US Navy, downs five out of nine Japanese bombers attacking the aircraft carrier Lexington, earning the Congressional Medal of Honor and commission of Lieutenant Commander.

March 12 — Bell Aircraft Corporation receives the first Navy "E" pennant awarded to an airplane manufacturer.

March 19 — Frank Walsh, former Treasurer and Assistant Secretary of the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce and later Assistant Secretary of Vultee Aircraft, Inc, dies at his home, Passaic, NJ.

March 26 — George W Burrell, Operations Manager of Republic Aviation Corporation, is killed during the test flight of a Republic fighter.

April — Lt Col William D Old makes the first Ferry Command flight over the "Hump" of the Himalayas, from Assam, India, to Kunming, China.

April 6 — Aircraft War Production Council, Inc, is organized by eight West coast aircraft manufacturers to coordinate their research and production efforts.

April 18 — Lt Col James H Doolittle and his squadron of 16 B-25 Mitchell bombers carry out the first bombing raid against the Japanese mainland in a daring flight from the aircraft carrier Hornet.

April 19 — Lieutenant Colonel Doolittle is commissioned a Brigadier General and earns the Distinguished Flying Cross for his bombing mission of Japan.

April 20 — Army announces contracts with domestic air lines for utilization of services and equipment in War operations.

April 20 — President Roosevelt orders Government operation of Brewster Aeronautical Corporation plants in Long Island City, NY, Newark, NJ, and Johnsville, PA.

April 26 — S Paul Johnston, recently Coordinator of Research for NACA, is made Manager of Curtiss-Wright Corporation's office in Washington, DC.

April 27 — Figures released by Bureau of Employment Statistics show that wage earners in the aircraft industry now average $44.80 per week, as compared to average weekly earnings of $31.42 in 1932.

April 28 — A total of $35,557,000,000 of Federal funds have been allocated since June, 1940, to date for aircraft engines and parts.

May — Domestic air lines now have but 166 airplanes left for operations, as compared with 359 domestic and 94 international airplanes as of December, 1941.

May 22 — Glenn L Martin is presented with the Lord & Taylor American Design Award.

June 1 — Air Transport Command, under direction of Major Gen Harold L George, is formally created and starts out operating 40,000 route-miles to all parts of the world.

June 4 — Torpedo Squadron Eight, consisting of 15 torpedo planes and 13 men, is wiped out at the Battle of Midway, with but one survivor, Ens George Gay. [Wikipedia has a roster of 30 men. —JLM]

June 17—Army Air Forces conduct tests at Wright Field, successfully picking up gliders from the ground by an airplane flying at more than 100 mph.

June 30 — Brig Gen James H Doolittle is awarded the 1942 Daniel Guggenheim Medal "for notable achievement in the advancement of aeronautics."

July 7 — Major Gen Carl A Spaatz is named Commander-in-Chief of the US Army Air Forces in the European Theater.

July 20 — Richard W Millar announces his resignation as President and Director of Vultee Aircraft, Inc, and as Director and Executive Committee Member of Consolidated Aircraft Corporation.

July 27 — Patent No 2,290,218, covering a new parachute built directly into the back of an aviator's flight jacket, is granted to Navy Lt Comdr A B Vosseller.

August 17 — The first official bombing raid of the US 8th Air Force is successfully completed by Brig Gen Ira C Eaker, leading twelve Flying Fortresses against the railway yards and shops of Rouen in occupied France.

September 10 — Tom M Girdler retires as Director of The Aviation Corporation.

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September 15 — Rear Adm John H Towers is assigned to the newly created post of Commander, Air Forces, Pacific Fleet, with the rank of Vice Admiral.

September 16 — Jacqueline Cochran is appointed Director of Women's Flying Training within the Army Air Forces.

October 2 — Aircraft War Production Council, Inc, East Coast, is organized by eight Eastern aircraft manufacturers to pool their combined resources for production of military aircraft

October 15 — Air Transport Command takes over operation of Trans-African Airline from Pan American Airways.

October 22 — Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce is disrupted when a majority of West coast aircraft manufacturers resign from the organization.

October 30 — Col John H Jouett resigns as President of the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce and Joins Higgins Industries, Inc, to head up their aircraft project.

Robert Collier Trophy for 1942 is awarded to Gen H H Arnold "for his organization and leadership of the Army Air Forces throughout the world."

The Sylvanus Albert Reed Award for 1942 is presented to Igor Ivan Sikorsky "for the creation and reduction to successful practice of a helicopter of superior controllability."

47,836 military aircraft of all types are produced this year. This includes 12,627 bombers, 10,769 fighters, 1,984 transports, 17,631 trainers, and 4,825 other purpose models.

138,089 military aircraft engines of all types are produced and delivered this year.


Aeronca Aircraft Corp, Middletown, OH, produces 813 L-3 Grasshopper and PT-23 Cornell military airplanes.

American Aviation Corp, New York City, is incorporated in the state of Delaware to build plywood aircraft gliders on a $5,000,000 Navy contract.

Andover Kent Aviation Corp, Port Washington, LI, acquires license from Langley Aircraft Corp, to build the Langley plywood monoplane.

Beech Aircraft Corp, Wichita, KS, builds 1,924 military airplanes: models AT-10 Wichita; AT-11 and SNB-1 Kansan; AT-7 and SNB-2 Navigator; and C-43 Traveller.

Bell Aircraft Corp, Buffalo, NY, produces 1,972 P-39 Airacobra fighters this year.

Bellanca Aircraft Corp suspends manufacture of its commercial models and builds Boeing AT-15 Crewmaker trainers on Army contract.

Boeing Aircraft Co's Seattle plant produces 1,259 B-17s and 185 A-20 Havocs and also develops an experimental flying boat XPBB-1 Sea Ranger. Boeing's Wichita plant turns out 2,217 PT-13, PT-17, PT-27, and NZS-1 Kaydet trainers.

Brewster Aeronautical Corp builds 168 SB-2A Bermuda dive bombers and 20 F2A-2 Vought Corsairs.

Edward G Budd Mfg Co, Philadelphia, PA, receives US Navy contract in June to manufacture 900 stainless steel transport airplanes.

Cessna Aircraft Co, Inc, Wichita, KS, produces 1,435 AT-8, AT-17, and C-78 Bobcat and Crane military models. Company erects new plant in which CG3-A and CG4-A troop-carrying gliders are constructed.

Consolidated Aircraft Corp, San Diego, CA, produces 1,891 military airplanes: models B-24 Liberator, PB2Y Coronado, and PBY Catalina. Company's Fort Worth, TX, plant turns out 50 B-24 and C-87 Liberators. Consolidated acquires the Nash-Kelvinator plant at New Orleans, LA, and establishes modification centers at Tuscon, AZ, and Elizabeth City, NC, to increase its production facilities.

Culver Aircraft Corp, Wichita, KS, builds 184 PQ-8 and LCA military airplanes.

Curtiss-Wright Corp, Airplane Division, delivers 4,511 P-40 Warhawk, O-52 Owl, C-46 Commando, and P-47 Thunderbolt models from its Buffalo plant. The Columbus, OH, plant produces 307 SO3C Seamew and 50 SB2C Helldiver planes for the Navy. At the St Louis plant 997 AT-9 Caravans, SNC Falcons, and A-25 Helldivers are turned out. [AT-9 was nicknamed Jeep; Caravan was C-76 and did not fly until 1943. —JLM]

Douglas Aircraft Co, Inc, Santa Monica, CA, completes its fourth plant, located at Tulsa, OK. A total of 3,802 military airplanes are produced in these four plants this year. Models built are the DB-7 and A-20 Havoc, C-53 and R-4D Skytrooper, the SBD and A-24 Dauntless, C-47 Sky Train, the B-17 Boeing Flying Fortress, and the B-24 Consolidated Liberator.

Eastern Aircraft Division of the General Motors Corp is organized, and the automotive plants in Baltimore, MD, Tarrytown, NY, and Linden, Bloomfield, and Trenton, NJ, are converted for the production of Grumman Wildcat and Avenger fighters. 26 are produced this year.

Fairchild Aircraft Division of the Fairchild Engine & Airplane Corp develops the AT-13 and AT-14 Yankee Doodle plywood trainers. The Hagerstown, MD, plant produces 1,878 PT-19, PT-23, and PT-26 Cornell and UC-61 Forwarder military airplanes.

Fleetwings, Inc, Bristol, PA, devoting most of its facilities to the manufacture of component parts for other companies, delivers one complete military airplane of its own design this year, the BT-12 stainless-steel Sophomore. (See illus)

Ford Motor Co produces 24 B-24 Consolidated Liberator bombers at its Willow Run plant.

G & A Aircraft, Inc, Willow Grove, PA, known as AGA Aviation Corp last year, continues development of autogiro models and builds CG-4A troop-carrying gliders for the Army.

General Aircraft Corp, Lowell, MA, moves its plant to Astoria, NY, and turns to the production of CG-4A Army cargo gliders.

Globe Aircraft Corp, Fort Worth, TX, discontinues production of its commercial model Swift and produces Beechcraft trainers under license agreement with Beech Aircraft Corp.

Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp, Bethpage, LI, turns out 2,274 F4F Wildcat, TBF Avenger, J4F Widgeon, J2F Duck, JRF Goose, and F6F Hellcat military airplanes.

Higgins Aircraft, Inc, a subsidiary of Higgins Industries, Inc, is formed at New Orleans, LA, to undertake construction of Curtiss C-76 Caravan plywood transports.

Howard Aircraft Corp, building the PT-23 Cornell under Fairchild license, also builds a military version of its DGA-15 commercial model, designated GH-1 Nightingale by the Navy.

Hughes Aircraft Co, Culver City, CA, combines interests with Henry Kaiser to undertake production of giant cargo-carrying plywood flying boats for the Government. (See illus p 91)

Interstate Aircraft & Engineering Corp, Los Angeles, CA, acquires the large manufacturing plant of the Arlington Furniture Co at De Kalb, IL, and produces 18 L-6 and L-8A liaison planes for the Army.

Kellett Autogiro Corp, Philadelphia, continues development of rotary-wing aircraft and produces airplane components for other manufacturers.

Lockheed Aircraft Corp establishes a major modification center in Texas and expands its Burbank production facilities. Company produces 2,540 P-38 Lightning; AT-18, A-28, and A-29 Hudson; and C-57, C-59 and C-60 Lodestar military airplanes.

Luscombe Airplane Corp, West Trenton, NJ, is taken over by the Government and is operated to produce aircraft parts for the US Navy.

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The Glenn L Martin Co, Baltimore, also operating the Glenn L Martin-Nebraska Co, Omaha, NE, concentrates its production on the B-26 Marauder, A-30 Baltimore, and PBM Mariner, producing a total of 1,420 of these models.

McDonnell Aircraft Corp, St Louis, manufactures the Boeing AT-15 for the Army under license from Boeing.

Naval Aircraft Factory, Philadelphia, produces 300 OS2N Kingfisher, eleven TDN, and seven SBN airplanes.

North American Aviation, Inc, now operates three plants in Inglewood, CA, Dallas, TX and Kansas City, KS, where a total of 3,705 AT-6 and SNJ trainers, 1,554 B-25 Mitchell bombers, and 774 P-51 and A-36 Mustang fighters are produced.

Northrop Aircraft, Inc, Hawthorne, CA, engaged in subcontract work for Consolidated and Boeing, also produces 291 Vultee Vengeance dive bombers for the RAF.

Northwestern Aeronautical Corp is organized at Minneapolis, MN, to manufacture CG-4A cargo gliders for the Army.

Piper Aircraft Corp, Lock Haven, PA, delivers 1,855 L-4 and HE-1 Grasshopper liaison planes.

Porterfield Aircraft Co, Kansas City, KS, moves its plant to Fort Smith, AR, and produces aircraft parts under Army contract.

Republic Aviation Corp, Farmingdale, LI, establishes another manufacturing unit at Evansville, IN, and produces a total of 514 P-47 Thunderbolts and 110 P-43 Lancers this year.

Ryan Aeronautical Co, San Diego, specializes in production of PT-20, 21, 22, STC-5, and STM-2 Recruit trainers, delivering 679 of these models to the Army and Navy.

St Louis Aircraft Corp, St Louis, expands production facilities to produce PT-23 Cornell trainers under license for the Army.

Southern Aircraft Corp, Dallas, TX, produces aircraft components for Consolidated, Grumman, Martin, and Vultee.

Spartan Aircraft Co, Tulsa, OK builds 125 NP-1 military trainers.

Taylorcraft Aviation Corp, Alliance, OH, turns out 529 L-2 Grasshoppers.

Timm Aircraft Corp, Van Nuys, CA, produces 15 NZT Tutor trainers for the Navy.

Universal Moulded Products Corp, DeLand, FL, builds 19 L-7A military liaison planes.

Vega Aircraft Corp produces 913 B-34 and PV-1 Ventura bombers and 68 B-17 Boeing Flying Fortress bombers in its Burbank, CA, plant.

Vought-Sikorsky Aircraft Division, United Aircraft Corp, delivers 819 military aircraft, including the OS2U-3 Kingfisher, F4U Corsair, and the JR2S.

Vultee Aircraft, inc., purchases Intercontinent Aircraft Corp, Miami, FL, giving the company its fourth plant for production of warplanes. 4,132 BT-13, BT-15, and SNV Valiant trainers and 73 P-66 Vanguard pursuit planes are produced at Downey, CA. The Wayne, MI, plant turns out 18 L-5 and L-9 Sentinels and two AT-19 Reliants. The Nashville, Tenn., plant produces 493 A-31, A-35, and RV-72 Vengeance dive bombers and 152 L-1A Vigilants.

Waco Aircraft Co, Troy, OH, produces quantities of CG-4A 15-seater gliders and military versions of its commercial planes, including the PT-14 trainer.

Waterman Arrowplane Corp ceases production of commercial aircraft and leases its plant to Douglas Aircraft Co, Inc, for the duration of the War


January 9 — Major Gen Carl Spaatz is appointed Commander in Chief of new Allied Air Force in North Africa.

January 20 — 2,600 airplanes have been shipped to date to the Soviet Union under Lend-Lease Act.

January 26 — WPB issues order freezing light planes and Link trainers.

January 28 — Dr Hugh L Dryden, Chief of the Mechanics and Sound Division of the National Bureau of Standards, is elected President of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences for 1943.

February — National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics opens its new Engine Laboratory at Cleveland.

February 8 — Josh Lee, former Senator from Oklahoma, is sworn in as a member of the Civil Aeronautics Board.

February 15 — Backlog of orders in aircraft industry now totals nearly $24,000,000,000.

February 19 — Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce announces completion of reorganization plan, with James P Murray, Vice-President of Boeing Aircraft Company, as newly elected President.

April 2 — New Naval air station, Patuxent, at Cedar Point, MD, is commissioned.

April 13 — National Aircraft War Production Council, Inc, is organized with Glenn L Martin as President and Frank Russell as General Manager.

May 26 — War Department announces successful trials of an Army-developed amphibious helicopter.

June 15 — The Greyhound Corporation files application with the Civil Aeronautics Board for an extensive network of 78 helicopter routes covering 49,103 miles and serving 1,043 terminals and intermediate points.

June 24 — Lt Col W R Lovelace, USAAF Aero Medical Laboratory, makes the world's longest parachute Jump from 40,200 ft at Ephrata, WA.

June 28 — Dr Joseph S Ames, formerly Chairman of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and President of The Johns Hopkins University, dies.

June 30 — Major Lester D Gardner is elected Chairman of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences, with Bennett H Horchler assuming Major Gardner's previous office of Executive Vice-President of the organization.

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July 18 — J Shelley Charles establishes a new US altitude sailplane record when he reaches 19,439 ft above point of release at Atlanta, GA.

July 21 — Alfred Marchev is elected President of Republic Aviation Corporation, succeeding Ralph S Damon, who returns to American Airlines as Vice-President and General Manager.

August — US 8th Air Force celebrates its first anniversary month by setting a new record of 541 enemy aircraft destroyed in one month.

August 1 — 177 B-24 Liberator bombers of the 9th Air Force, under Major Gen Lewis Brereton, carry out a successful low-level attack on the Ploesti Oil Refineries in Roumania.

August 17 — 150 B-17 Flying Fortresses stage a raid on the Messerschmitt Works at Regensburg, Germany, inaugurating 1,400-mile American shuttle bombing flights from England to bases in North Africa. (See illus p 83)

September 1 — 123,000 airplanes and 349,000 airplane engines have been produced between May, 1940, and today.

September 21 — Navy Department announces that it now possesses the most powerful Naval Air Force in the world with 18,000 Naval aircraft

October — US Air Transport Command inaugurates its aerial delivery freight line between Patterson Field, OH, and Assam, India, 14,000 miles away.

October 15 — Details of the Gyro Flux Gate compass, which gives accurate readings despite violent movements of an airplane, are made public by Bendix Aviation Corporation.

October 30 — Major Reuben H Fleet, former Head of Consolidated Aircraft Corporation, is elected President of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences for 1944.

November 6 — An airplane using aviation gasoline processed from coal makes its first flight from Morgantown, WV, to Washington, DC.

November 26 — "Al" Williams, former Naval and Marine Corps pilot, is appointed as Civilian Technical Consultant to the Assistant Chief of Air Staff Training, USAAF.

November 26 — A water-injection device, developed by Pratt & Whitney Aircraft, gives added "bursts of power" to engines installed in fighter aircraft

December — US Navy flying boat Mars sets a new over-water and cargo-transport record, flying 4,374 miles nonstop from Patuxent River, MD, to Natal, Brazil, in 28 hr, 25 min.

December 22 — Restrictions on private flying are greatly relaxed by the Civil Aeronautics Board after clearance is obtained from the Army and Navy authorities.

December 27 — Chrysler-Dodge starts production of bomber aircraft engines in huge new plant at Chicago.

Robert J Collier Trophy for 1943 is awarded to Capt Luis de Florez, USNR, "for his contribution to the safe and rapid training of combat pilots and crews."

The Sylvanus Albert Reed Award for 1943 is presented by the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences to Dr Sanford A. Moss "for the development of the turbosupercharger which has made possible the high-altitude operation of aircraft"

A total of 85,898 military aircraft, including 29,355 bombers, 23,988 fighters, 7,012 transports, 19,939 trainers, and 5,604 miscellaneous types, are produced this year.

227,116 aircraft engines of all types are manufactured and delivered.


Aeronca Aircraft Corp produces 522 L-3 Grasshoppers and 754 PT-19 and PT-23 Fairchild Cornell trainers.

Allied Aviation Corp, Baltimore, MD, undertakes construction of the LRA-1 twelve-place transport amphibious glider for the US Navy.

American Aviation, Jamestown, NY, produces one military aircraft this year, the TDR.

Avion, Inc, is formed at Los Angeles, CA, to conduct research and development of military aircraft

Beech Aircraft Corp, Wichita, KS, produces 2,610 airplanes for the Army and Navy, including the AT-10 Wichita, AT-11 and SNB-1 Kansan, AT-7 and SNB-2 Navigator, UC-43 and GB-2 Traveller, and the UC-45 Expeditor.

Bell Aircraft Corp, entrusted with the design and construction of the first Jet-propelled fighter plane in America, produces the YP-59 Airacomet. Company also turns out 4,945 P-39 Airacobras and 28 P-63 Kingcobra fighters. Four B-29 bombers are delivered from Bell's Marietta, GA, plant.

Boeing Aircraft Co greatly expands its manufacturing facilities and now operates eight plants in the state of Washington, two in Wichita, KS, and one in Vancouver, Canada. 2,340 B-17 Flying Fortresses are turned out by the Boeing Airplane Co, while 2,643 Kaydet trainers and 87 B-29 Superfortresses are produced in the two plants at Wichita.

Brewster Aeronautical Corp management is taken over by Henry Kaiser, and production of Vought F-3A Corsair Navy fighters is undertaken, in addition to production of Brewster's SB-2A Bermudas. Company builds a total of 703 of these two types this year.

Brunswick-Balke-Collender Co, Muskegon, MI, undertakes production of TDN airplanes for the Navy, producing 25 of this model during the year.

Edward G Budd Mfg Co continues production of stainless steel transports, designated the C-93 for the Army and known as the RBD-3 in the Navy. (See illus p 89)

Cessna Aircraft Co, Inc, delivers 2,829 AT-17 and UC-78 Bobcat trainers and transports to the Army and Navy.

Columbia Aircraft at Valley Stream, LI, builds 13 J2F Grumman Ducks for the Navy.

Commonwealth Aircraft, Inc, is organized at Kansas City, KS, acquiring the assets and equipment of Rearwin Airplanes, Inc Company is engaged in production of Waco troop-carrying gliders under a $15,000,000 contract with the US Army.

Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corp is formed in March of this year by the merging of Consolidated Aircraft Corp and Vultee Aircraft, Inc, now representing the largest aircraft organization in the country. The new firm operates manufacturing units in San Diego, CA; Fort Worth, TX; Tucson, AZ; Elizabeth City, NC; Wayne, MI; Louisville, KY; Miami, FL; Allentown PA; and Dearborn, MI. A total of 10,596 airplanes are produced by these plants this year.

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Culver Aircraft Corp, Wichita, KS, turns out 401 military aircraft of the TDC and PQS types.

Curtiss-Wright Corp, Airplane Division, now operates six plants in Buffalo, Columbus, St Louis, and Louisville, KY, where a total of 6,577 Warhawk, Helldiver, Seamew, Commando, Caravan, and P-47 (Republic) Thunderbolt military airplanes are produced.

Doak Aircraft Co, Inc, Torrance, CA, now engages exclusively in the production of metal aircraft parts and subassemblies for other aircraft manufacturers.

Douglas Aircraft Co, Inc, now operates plants at Santa Monica, El Segundo, and Long Beach, CA; Chicago, IL; and Tulsa and Oklahoma City, OK Production of the Dauntless, Skymaster, Skytrain, Skytrooper, Havoc, and B-24 (Consolidated) Liberator models are main activities of company this year. 9,592 of these various military aircraft are built during year.

Eastern Aircraft Division of the General Motors Corp, turns out 1,109 TBM torpedo bombers at Trenton, NJ, and 1,437 FM-1 Wildcat fighters at Linden, NJ.

Fairchild Aircraft Division of the Fairchild Engine & Airplane Corp, develops a twin-engined cargo carrier for the Army, known as the C-82 Packet. Company also goes into production on its new AT-21 Gunner advanced trainer, building eight of these models and 2,061 Cornell and Forwarder types this year.

Fleetwings, Inc, Bristol, PA, is acquired by Henry Kaiser and is now known as Fleetwings Division of Kaiser Cargo, Inc. The firm, in addition to its subcontract work for other aircraft manufacturers, delivers 23 of its BT-12 Sophomore trainers to the Army.

Ford Motor Co produces 1,291 B-24 Liberator bombers at its Willow Run plant. The company's wood-working plant at Iron Mountain, MI, constructs Waco troop-carrying gliders on a $31,000,000 Army contract.

G & A Aircraft, Inc, Willow Grove, PA, is acquired by the Firestone Aircraft Co, Akron, OH.

General Aircraft Corp, Astoria, LI, engages in the manufacture of Waco CG-4A gliders for the Army.

Globe Aircraft Corp, Fort Worth, TX, builds 268 AT-10 Wichita trainers for the Army under license from Beech Aircraft Corp.

Goodyear Aircraft Corp, Akron, OH, manufactures 377 FG-1 Corsair fighters for the Navy under license from Chance Vought Aircraft Division.

Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp develops the F7F Tigercat as the latest model of its famous line of Navy fighters. Company also delivers 4,404 Avenger, Widgeon, Goose, Wildcat, and Hellcat models from its Bethpage, LI, plant.

Hamilton Standard propellers, developed by the Hamilton Standard Propellers Division of United Aircraft Corp, are also now being produced by Frigidaire, Remington-Rand, and Nash-Kelvinator.

Howard Aircraft Corp produces 69 GH-2 Nightingale, 204 NH-1, and 344 PT-23 (Fairchild) Cornell military models during the year.

Interstate Aircraft & Engineering Corp constructs seven TDR military models at De Kalb, IL, and turns out 240 L-6 Grasshoppers at its El Segundo, CA, plant.

Kellett Autogiro Corp, because of the larger scope of its present aviation activities, resumes its original name of Kellett Aircraft Corp. Company produces five YO-60 military airplanes at its Philadelphia plant.

Laister-Kauffmann Aircraft Corp, St Louis, MO, devotes its activities to the manufacture of training and cargo gliders.

Lockheed Aircraft Corp turns out 3,163 military aircraft at Burbank, CA, and 2,072 at its former Vega plant. Company develops the new C-69 Constellation this year but devotes its expanded facilities primarily to the production of the P-38 Lightning, PV-1 Ventura, the C-57, 60, and R-50 Lodestar, and AT-18 and RA-29 Hudson.

The Glenn L Martin Co develops the XPB2M-1 Mars, the largest flying boat so far built in this country, for the US Navy. A total of 3,508 B-26 and AT-23 Marauder, A-30 and RA-30 Baltimore, and PBM Mariner airplanes are produced at Martin's Baltimore, MD, and Omaha, NE, plants.

Meyers Aircraft Co, Tecumseh, MI, devotes its facilities to production of the Model OTW-160 light training biplane.

Morrow Aircraft Corp, San Bernardino, CA, builds the model 1-L plywood training monoplane for use under the civilian pilot-training program.

Naval Aircraft Factory builds 59 TDN-1 and 39 PBN Catalina types at the Navy Yard at Philadelphia. [PBN-1 Nomad is the usual reference for the NAF planes, which were somewhat modified PBY Catalinas. —JLM]

North American Aviation, Inc, turns out 9,106 military airplanes at its Inglewood, CA, Kansas City, KS, and Dallas, TX plants. These include the P-51 and A-36 Mustang fighters, AT-6 and SNJ Texan trainers, and B-25 Mitchell and B-24 (Consolidated) Liberator bombers.

Northrop Aircraft, Inc, Hawthorne, CA, develops and produces 32 of the famous P-61 Black Widow fighters. In addition, the company builds 109 A-31 Vengeance dive bombers.

Northwestern Aeronautical Corp designs, develops, and flies the first detachable engine installation for the CG-4A Army gliders. Company is also building Waco CG-13 troop gliders for the Army.

Piper Aircraft Corp, Lock Haven, PA, delivers 1,319 L-4 and AG-1 Grasshopper military planes.

Pratt & Whitney aircraft engines, in addition to being produced by Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Division, United Aircraft Corp, at Hartford, CT, are also being built now by Jacobs, Continental, Ford, Buick, Chevrolet, and Nash-Kelvinator.

Republic Aircraft Corp produces 4,155 P-47 Thunderbolt fighters at its Farmingdale, LI, and Evansville, IN, plants.

Ryan Aeronautical Co, San Diego, CA, extensively engages in subcontract work and the manufacturing of exhaust manifolds and delivers five PT-25 trainers to the Army.

Sikorsky Aircraft Division, United Aircraft Corp, now confines its production exclusively to helicopters, building 14 of the R-4 and YR-4 types for the Army and Navy.

St Louis Aircraft Co, manufacturing PT-19 and PT-23 Fairchild Cornell trainers under license, delivers 288 of these models during year.

Southern Aircraft Corp, Garland, TX expands its plant to five times its original size and devotes its facilities exclusively to production of aircraft components for other airplane manufacturers.

Taylorcraft Aviation Corp, Alliance, OH, builds 1,161 L-2 Grasshoppers.

Timm Aircraft Corp, Van Nuys, CA, goes into production of its NZT plastic-plywood molded trainers, delivering 247 of these planes this year.

Vega Aircraft Corp is merged into the Lockheed Aircraft Corp and the name of Vega dropped.

Vought-Sikorsky Division of United Aircraft Corp is split up into separate manufacturing organizations, with Vought now known as the Chance Vought Aircraft Division. At its Stratford, CT, plant alone, 1,780 F4U Corsair fighters are produced. This model is also being built by Brewster and Goodyear.

Waco Aircraft Co, Troy, OH, now builds gliders for the Army. At the end of this year, over 10,000 CG-4A Waco gliders had been built by Waco and other manufacturers throughout the country.

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January 1 — The Army Air Forces now numbers 2,358,000 officers and men.

January 1 — Lend-Lease shipments of warplanes to Russia, between October, 1941, and date, include more than 7,800 planes, 3,000 of which were ferried all the way by air.

January 4 — Navy establishes a new Naval Air Ferry Command, headed by Capt John W King and operating under the Naval Air Transport Service.

January 7 — Army Air Forces announces development and production of its first Jet-propelled fighter airplane, the Bell P-59 Airacomet.

January 8 — Army's new P-61 Black Widow night fighter, built by Northrop Aircraft, Inc, makes its first public appearance at Army-Navy Los Angeles Air Show.

January 29 — Restricted information on the new B-29 Superfortress bomber is released by British press.

February 14 — Igor Sikorsky is awarded the Fawcett Trophy "for making the greatest scientific contribution to aviation in 1943."

February 17 — Automobile industry reports that during 1942-1943 it delivered fighting aircraft valued at more than $5,030,000.000 to the Government.

February 22 — William A M Burden is nominated by President Roosevelt to become Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Aviation.

February 26 — Interested Government agencies recommend cancellation of Kaiser-Hughes project calling for construction of a giant plywood flying boat.

March — USAAF reaches its wartime peak with 2,383 ,000 officers and men and 64,591 planes, which includes 41,848 combat aircraft

March 4 — The Guggenheim Medal for 1943 is awarded posthumously to Edmund T Allen, well-known test pilot, who was killed February 18th in a crash in a new Army bomber that he was testing.

March 7 — 42 per cent of the total employees now working in West coast aircraft plants are women.

April 17 — Howard R Hughes and Jack Frye, with 17 passengers aboard, fly the giant Lockheed Constellation from Burbank, CA, to Washington, DC, in the record time of 6 hr, 58 min.

April 18 — Secretary of Commerce Jesse Jones authorizes completion of the Kaiser-Hughes plywood flying boats.

May 12 — Two Army Air Force P-51 Mustang fighter planes make record transcontinental flights within 7 min of each other, the best time being 6 hr, 31 min, 30 sec between Inglewood, CA, and La Guardia Field, New York.

May 18 — Henry Kaiser resigns as Board Chairman of Brewster Aeronautical Corporation and is succeeded by Harry F Morton.

June 2 — President Roosevelt reveals that, of the 175,000 American airplanes produced between March 11, 1941, and April 1, 1944, 33,000 of them were Lend-Leased to other Allied nations.

June 6 (D-Day) — A gigantic sky-train, nine planes wide and 200 miles long, carries American and British airborne troops across the English Channel for invasion of Europe.

June 15 — A group of B-29 Superfortresses of the 20th Bomber Command drop the first bombs on the Japanese mainland since General Doolittle's Token Raid in 1942.

July 12 — War Production Board issues an L-48 order permitting the manufacture of prototype aircraft for postwar civilian markets.

July 14 — Robert H Hinckley is appointed War Contract Termination Director under the Contract Settlement Act of 1944.

August 2 — Defense Plant Corporation completes arrangements for the sale of war surplus airplanes at 30 sales centers throughout the country.

August 22 — Theodore P Wright is nominated by President Roosevelt to be Administrator of Civil Aeronautics, succeeding Charles I Stanton, recently resigned.

September 2 — Engineers of the Army Air Force Matériel Command, Wright Field, disclose the successful development of rocket-power takeoff units to assist in lifting heavily-loaded planes into the air.

September 2 — Lt Gen Millard F Harmon assumes command of all Army Air Force units operating in Pacific Ocean areas.

September 14 — P G Johnson, President of Boeing Aircraft Company, dies at Wichita, KS, from a cerebral hemorrhage.

September 14 — Col Floyd B Wood, Major Harry Wexler, and Lt Frank Record, flying in a Douglas A-20 Havoc, successfully carry out the first attempt to fly into the heart of a hurricane to obtain valuable scientific data.

September 15 — $212,393,501 worth of airplanes and aircraft equipment are declared war surplus by owning Federal agencies.

September 18 — A cutback in production of aircraft at five major airplane plants is ordered by the Army.

September 20 — The 10,000th Republic P-47 Thunderbolt comes off the assembly line at Republic Aviation Corporation's Farmingdale, LI, plant.

November 1 — International Civil Aviation Conference, attended by delegates from all major powers except Russia, opens in Chicago.

November 4 — The first civilian airplanes to be manufactured in this country since Pearl Harbor are 25 Grumman Widgeons for several Latin American firms, authorized by the War Production Board.

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November 14 — Scott Russell resigns as Manager of the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce "because of ill health."

November 22 — Two executives of Bell Aircraft Corporation, Carl A Cover, Vice-President, and Max Stupar, the company's Planning Director, are killed in an airplane crash at Wright Field, OH.

November 30 — Dr George W Lewis, Director of Aeronautical Research for the NACA, is awarded the Spirit of St Louis Medal for his work in aviation during the past 25 years.

December 1 — Production of aircraft assemblies and engines is bogged down by three major strikes in Detroit plants.

December 19 — Glenn L Martin gives $1,700,000 to the University of Maryland for establishment of a College of Engineering and Aeronautical Sciences at the University.

December 31 — An armada of 1,300 heavy and medium bombers of the US 8th Air Force carries out a successful raid over northwestern Germany.

Robert Collier Trophy for 1944 is awarded to Gen Carl Spaatz "for demonstrating the air power concept through employment of American aviation in the war against Germany."

The Sylvanus Albert Reed Award for 1944 is presented by the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences to Fred E Weick "for his contribution to the development of tricycle landing gear and the two-control non-spinning airplane."

Domestic air lines fly 144,000,000 revenue passenger-miles this year.

In size, the aircraft industry now ranks first in the world, with a value of production in the industry of $16,745,000,000. This equals the total value of production in 1939 of the combined automobile industry, the steel works, the meat-packing plants, the petroleum industry, the bakeries, the cigarette companies, the smelters or refiners of nonferrous metals, the paper and paperboard mills, and the printers and publishers of newspapers — the nine leading US industries in 1939.

256,911 military aircraft engines of all types are produced this year.

96,318 military airplanes, of which 35,003 are bombers, 38,873 fighters, 9,834 transports, 7,577 trainers, and 5,031 miscellaneous types, are produced and delivered during 1944.


Aeronautical Products, Inc, Detroit, MI, develops a helicopter, designated model A-3.

Aeronca Aircraft Corp delivers 225 PT-19 (Fairchild) Cornell trainers and 80 L-3 Grasshoppers.

American Aviation Corp, Jamestown, NY, builds 16 TDR-1 military airplanes.

Beech Aircraft Corp produces 1,979 military aircraft this year, including the models F-2B, UC-45, UC-43, AT-7, and AT-11.

Bell Aircraft Corp turns out 1,786 P-63 Kingcobra, 1,729 P-39Q Airacobra, and 33 P-59 Airacomet combat planes from its Buffalo plant. At Marietta, GA, Bell completes 201 B-29 (Boeing) Superfortress bombers. The company also develops a revolutionary type helicopter, which it plans to put into production after the War.

Bellanca Aircraft Corp. resumes construction of complete airplanes this year> building 39 AT-21 (Fairchild) Gunner crew trainers on an Army contract.

Boeing Aircraft Co completes and successfully flies its new giant C-97 military transport. Company also puts into operation its new $750,000 wind tunnel. 3,698 B-29 Superfortress bombers are turned out in the Washington plants, 203 PBY-2B (Consolidated) Catalina flying boats are produced at Vancouver, and 708 PT-13 Kaydet trainers roll off the assembly lines at Wichita.

Brewster Aeronautical Corp continues production of F3A (Vought) Corsair fighters and SB-2A Bermuda dive bombers, building 599 of the former and 35 of the latter during the year.

Brunswick-Balke-Collender Co produces five more TDN-1 Navy planes.

Edward G Budd Mfg Co produces 17 RBD-1 Conestoga transports for the Navy. (See illus p 89)

Cessna Aircraft Co turns out 471 UC-78 Bobcats early this year and later reconverts its plant facilities for subcontract work on components for the Boeing B-29 and Douglas A-26.

Columbia Aircraft Corp produces 198 J2F (Grumman) Ducks.

Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corp, with its eleven manufacturing divisions throughout the US, delivers a total of 7,956 airplanes to the Army and Navy this year. Models built include the B-24 and C-87 Liberator, B-32 Dominator, B-13 and SNV-2 Valiant, TBY-2 Seawolf, A-35B Vengeance, PBY-5A Catalina, PB2Y-3R Coronado, PB4Y-2 Privateer, AT-19 Reliant, and L-5 Sentinel.

Culver Aircraft Corp builds 877 PQ-14 and YPQ-14 aircraft

Curtiss-Wright Corp, Airplane Division, delivers a combined total of 6,720 airplanes, the bulk of which are P-40N Warhawk and SB2C Helldiver fighters. 1,319 C-46 Commando and ten YC-76 Caravan transports are also built.

Douglas Aircraft Co, Inc, continues large-scale production of the C54 Skymaster, C-47 Skytrain, SBD Dauntless, A-20 Havoc and A-26 Invader. In addition, Douglas builds 562 B-24 (Consolidated) Liberators and four BTD models, for a total record production of 11,099 military airplanes.

Eastern Aircraft Division, General Motors Corp, turns out 3,130 Grumman Wildcats and 3,481 TBM (Grumman) Avengers at its Linden and Trenton, NJ, plants.

Fairchild Aircraft Division of Fairchild Engine & Airplane Corp acquires new plant facilities at Hagerstown in which to produce the C-82 Packet. Production of the UC-61 Forwarder and PT-19 and PT-26 Cornell continues in the old Hagerstown plant, while AT-21 Gunners are built in the Burlington plant. A total of 898 of these models are produced during the year.

Fisher Body Division, General Motors Corp, completes two P-75 Eagle models at Cleveland, OH.

Fleetwings Division, Kaiser Cargo, Inc, continues production of aircraft components and turns out eight YPQ-12A complete aircraft.

Ford Motor Co's production of B-24 (Consolidated) Liberator bombers reaches a total of 3,990 for the year.

Globe Aircraft Corp completes its prime contract for AT-10 (Beech) Wichita trainers, building 332 this year. Company engages in subcontract work and announces its first postwar personal airplane, the Model GC-1A Swift.

Goodyear Aircraft Corp, in addition to mass production of wing panels and tail surfaces for other manufacturers, builds 2,108 complete (Vought) Corsair fighters.

Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp turns out 6,139 Hellcats, 65 F7F Tigercats, 77 JRF Goose amphibians, and 44 J4F Widgeons for the Navy and Coast Guard.

Higgins Aircraft, Inc, a subsidiary of Higgins Industries, Inc, gets into production of plywood airplanes at New Orleans, building two C-46 (Curtiss) Commando transports.

Howard Aircraft Corp delivers 177 of its GH-2 and GH-3 Nightingales and two PT-23 (Fairchild) Cornell trainers.

Interstate Aircraft & Engineering Corp builds 165 TDR-1 and ten TD3R-1 airplanes for the Navy.

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Kellett Aircraft Corp continues with its development work on helicopters for the Army, while a large portion of its production facilities is devoted to the building of component parts for other aircraft manufacturers.

Laister-Kauffmann Aircraft Corp acquires the plant and assets of the Bowlus Sailplanes Co.

Lockheed Aircraft Corp produces 4,186 P-38 Lightning fighters during 1944. Five YP-80 Shooting Star jet-propulsion airplanes, as well as three C-69 Constellation transports, 352 PV-1 Ventura and 65 PV-2 Harpoon Navy patrol planes. 1,244 B-17 (Boeing) Flying Fortress bombers, are also built in the company's two plants at Burbank.

The Glenn L Martin Co produces 1,926 military airplanes at Baltimore and 383 at its Omaha, NE, plant. These include three primary types, the B-26 Marauder, PBM Mariner, and A-30 Baltimore. The B-29 (Boeing) Superfortress is also built at Omaha.

McDonnell Aircraft Corp, in addition to designing a helicopter for postwar development and producing components for other manufacturers, builds 30 complete AT-21 (Fairchild) Gunner trainers for the Army.

Meyers Aircraft Co discontinues its production of training planes and devotes its facilities to subcontract work for other manufacturers.

Nash-Kelvinator Corp receives a license to build Sikorsky helicopters for the Army and produces five of the YR-6 models at Lansing, MI.

Naval Aircraft Factory builds 97 PBN Catalina flying boats at Philadelphia. [PBN-1 Nomad is the usual reference for the NAF planes, which were somewhat modified PBY Catalinas. —JLM]

North American Aviation, Inc, establishes a number of production records during 1944 and produces a total of 14,858 military aircraft. Models produced include the P-51 Mustang, B-25 Mitchell, AT-6 Texan, and B-24 (Consolidated) Liberator.

Northrop Aircraft, Inc, devotes the major portion of its production facilities to the P-61 Black Widow night fighter, completing delivery on 449 of these. (See illus p 84)

Piper Aircraft Corp turns out 1,904 L-4 Grasshoppers for the Army.

Republic Aviation Corp devotes the entire facilities of its Farmingdale, LI, and Evansville, IN, plants to production of the P-47 Thunderbolt, delivering 6,986 of these famous fighters to the Army Air Forces.

Roberts Aircraft Corp, Robertson, MO, works on its third prime Army contract for CG-4A gliders.

Ryan Aeronautical Co launches into its fifth building expansion program for production of exhaust manifold systems and Navy training planes.

St Louis Aircraft Co completes 61 PT-19 and PT-23 (Fairchild) Cornell trainers for the Army.

Sikorsky Aircraft Division, United Aircraft Corp, continues development of helicopter models, going into quantity production of the Model R-5.

Taylorcraft Aviation Corp completes its contract for L-2 Grasshopper airplanes, turning out 226 of these early in the year and obtaining a large contract from Douglas Aircraft Co, Inc, to manufacture tail assemblies and ailerons for the A-26 Invader.

Chance Vought Aircraft Division, United Aircraft Corp, devotes its entire facilities to production of Navy F4U Corsair fighters, delivering 2,673 complete airplanes.

Waco Aircraft Co continues development and production of various types of cargo and training gliders for the Army.


January — Commercial air-transport service across the Atlantic is resumed.

January 1 — Navy now has 37,000 aircraft on hand.

January 1 — Ronald F Bollinger, 34, test pilot and Flying Supervisor for Douglas Aircraft Company, Inc, is killed at Long Beach in crash of plane being tested.

January 6 — Air Technical Service Command discloses development of an aerial fuel tanker, the C-109, for supplying gasoline to B-29 bases in China.

January 9 — An Army Air Forces Boeing C-97 establishes new coast-to-coast nonstop flight record of 6 hr, 3 min, 50 sec, flying from Seattle to Washington, DC.

January 10 — Lawrence D Bell, President of Bell Aircraft Corporation, is awarded the 1944 Daniel Guggenheim Medal for achievement in the design and production of military aircraft

January 22 — Charles H Colvin is elected President of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences for 1945, succeeding Major R H Fleet, last year's President.

January 31 — 1,058,236 people are now employed in the aircraft industry in prime airframe, engine, and propeller manufacturing plants.

February — There are now 3,505 airfields in this country. US has also acquired 473 air bases in foreign countries.

February 1 — Irving S Babcock, former President of Yellow Truck & Motor Corporation and Vice-President of General Motors Corporation, becomes President and Director of The Aviation Corporation.

February 21 — Army Air Forces declassifies and reveals developments of 14 extremest fighter airplanes built as engineering test planes: the Curtiss XP-55 Ascender; McDonnell XP-67; General Motors XP-75; Northrop XP-56; Bell XP-77; Vultee XP-54 Swoose Goose Curtiss XP-37; Curtiss XP-42; Curtiss XP-46; Grumman XP-50; North American XP-64; Republic XP-41; Republic XP-69; and Vultee XP-66.

February 24 — Capt Jack Knight, pioneer commercial air transportation pilot who flew 2,400,000 miles with United Air Lines, Inc, dies at Niles, MI.

March 5 — Col Edgar S Gorrell, 54, President of Air Transport Association, dies in Georgetown Hospital, Washington, DC.

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March 13 — Courses in aviation are now being taught in 14,000 of America's 25,686 high schools.

March 27 — Vincent Bendix, founder of Bendix Aviation Corporation and President of Bendix Helicopters, Inc, dies in New York City.

March 29 — A controllable wing, capable of being moved around two pivots and eliminating the use of conventional controls, is designed by George Spratt of Consolidated Vultee's Stout Research Division.

April 1 — 13,475 US manufactured aircraft have now gone to Russia since start of the Lend-Lease Program.

April 12 — Franklin Delano Roosevelt, America's first flying President, dies at Warm Springs, GA.

April 25 — Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce, Board of Governors, decides to change the name of the organization to Aircraft Industries Association of America (AIA).

April 26 — The Norden Bombsight, closely guarded Army Air Force secret, is publicly displayed before the Senate Small Business Committee.

April 26 — The Senate passes two bills honoring the late Col William Mitchell: one, promoting him posthumously to the rank of Major General; the other, awarding him the Medal of Honor.

May 8 — War in Europe is terminated with the collapse of Germany.

June 7 — Edward P Warner, Vice-Chairman of the Civil Aeronautics Board, is named as US Delegate to the Council of the Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization.

August 6 — A USAAF B-29 bomber, Enola Gay, piloted by Col. Paul W Tibbets, Jr, drops the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan. Simultaneously, 580 other B-29s drop 3,850 tons of incendiary bombs on five other industrial cities of Japan. (See illus p 88)

August 11 — Private flying restrictions along Eastern seaboard are rescinded.

August 14 — Japan's surrender ends World War II.

August 17 — War Department sends out 4,500 telegrams to aircraft manufacturers in eleven Northeastern states canceling aircraft contracts.

August 17 — Edward P. Warner is elected President of PICAO's Interim Council.

August 31 — Brig Gen L C Craigie is named Chief of the Air Technical Service Command's Engineering Division, in charge of research, development, and testing of AA. airplanes and equipment.

September 1 — A B-29 Superfortress, Lady Marge, flies 4,640 miles nonstop from Honolulu to Washington, DC, in 17 hr, 21 min, establishing a new nonstop distance record.

September 1 — Naval aircraft strength reaches its peak with 48,576 Naval pilots and 10,049 Marine Corps pilots, 29,583 combat planes, and 11,173 noncombat aircraft

September 5 — William M Allen is elected President of the Boeing Airplane and Boeing Aircraft companies.

September 6 — Vice Adm John S McCain, who had just returned from witnessing the signing of the Japanese surrender terms, dies suddenly at his home in Coronado, CA.

September 8 — Dr William F Durand, appointed by President Wilson in 1915 as one of the original members of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, resigns from NACA to retire at the age of 86.

September 21 — Willow Run bomber plant is leased to Kaiser-Frazier Corporation for the manufacture of automobiles.

September 28 — The first round-the-world air service is inaugurated by the Air Transport Command when a Douglas C-54E Globester, carrying nine passengers, flies 23,147 miles in 149 hr, 44 min, from Washington, around the globe, to Washington.

October 5 — Wanamaker's becomes the first New York department store to sell aircraft as merchandise from the floor. Three Piper Aircraft Corporation models are displayed.

October 29 — T P Wright, Administrator of Civil Aeronautics, is elected Vice-Chairman of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

October 31-November 1 — Four B-29 Superfortresses fly 6,553 miles nonstop from Japan to Washington, DC, in 27½ hr average time.

November 4 — Col Lowell Smith, who led the Army's first round-the-world flight in 1924 and held 16 military aircraft speed and endurance world records, dies in Tucson, AZ.

November 19-20 — A B-29 Superfortress, Dreamboat, flies nonstop from Guam to Washington, DC, in approximately 35 hr, setting a new world's official distance record of 7,916 miles.

November 23 — Arthur E Raymond, Vice-President of Engineering for the Douglas Aircraft Company, Inc, is elected President of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences for 1946.

December 7 — La Motte T Cohu is elected President of the Aircraft Industries Association.

December 11 — Boeing B-29 Dreamboat sets a new transcontinental record by flying from Burbank, CA, to Floyd Bennett Field, LI, in 5 hr, 27 min.

December 11 — The XB-42 Douglas Mixmaster, powered with Allison engines, sets a transcontinental record of 5 hr, 17 min, flying from Los Angeles to Washington.

December 17 — Dr Harold Roxbee Cox, Head of Power Jets Ltd of England, delivers the Ninth Wright Brothers Lecture in Washington, revealing Britain's new gas-turbine developments.

December 19 — President Truman asks Congress to merge the Army and Navy and offers a seven-point merger program.

December 31 — There are now 183,336 people employed in prime airframe, engine, and propeller manufacturing plants, representing an 83 per cent decline from the first of the year.

December 31 — The Surplus Property Administration announces that nearly $13,000,000,000 worth of aircraft plants, machines, and materials has been declared surplus up to this time.

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Robert Collier Trophy for 1945 is awarded to Dr Luis W Alvarez "for his conspicuous and outstanding initiative in the concept of, and his contribution to the construction, adaptation and effective use of, the Ground Control Approach System for safe landing of aircraft under all weather and traffic conditions."

The Sylvanus Albert Reed Award for 1945 is presented by the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences to Charles Stark Draper "for application of the gyroscope to computing sights for gunnery and to other computing devices."

At close of the year, the Army and Navy had canceled aircraft commitments totaling $26,598,873,000.

During the 4 years of war, Army Air Forces aircraft flew 108,015,909 hr and dropped over 2,000,000 tons of bombs.

7,502,538 passengers are carried by the domestic air lines this year. 49,761 airplanes, of which 47,714 are military airplanes, valued at $8,300,000,000 are produced this year.

109,650 military aircraft engines of all types are delivered during the year.


Aeronca Aircraft Corp goes into production on the postwar version of the two-place Champion.

Beech Aircraft Corp develops a new combat plane, the XA-38 Grizzly attack bomber. Up to V-J Day, the company had delivered 613 C-45 and F-2B Expeditors. Company has now reverted to peacetime production of its postwar Model 18.

Bell Aircraft Corp, which delivered a grand total of 13,594 military airplanes during the War, develops a new long-range jet fighter this year designated the XP-83. Company is now going into all-out production of helicopters for the postwar market.

Boeing Aircraft Co delivers the 2,694th Superfortress and starts production of its postwar transports. This includes commercial version of the Army's C-97, known as the 377 Stratocruiser.

Columbia Aircraft Co delivers an additional 119 JF2 (Grumman) Duck amphibians to the Navy before the close of the War, then sells out to Commonwealth Aircraft, Inc

Commonwealth Aircraft, Inc, Kansas City, KS, purchases the plant of Columbia Aircraft Corp, Valley Stream, LI, and starts production of the Skyranger and Trimmer personal planes.

Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corp delivers 2,792 military airplanes this year and lays plans for the future production of the 240 Convair transport. Its Wayne, MI, plant starts production of the four-place (Stinson) Voyager.

Culver Aircraft Corp, Wichita, KS, produces 894 of its PQ-14 radio-controlled target airplanes before termination of its Army contract this year. Company test-flies its Model V personal airplane and plans to start quantity production immediately.

Curtiss-Wright Corp, Airplane Division, which produced 22,977 military planes during the War, experiments with flying devices capable of speeds in excess of 1,400 mph. The company presents its research laboratory to Cornell University for a cooperative education-research program.

Douglas Aircraft Co, Inc, turns out 5,354 military aircraft during the first 8 months of the year. Its latest military models developed include the C-74 Army transport and the XB-42 bomber. The commercial versions of these two transports will be known as the DC-7 and DC-8, which are to go into immediate production along with the DC-4 and DC-6 air liners.

Eastern Aircraft Division, General Motors Corp, reconverts its plants for automobile production, after having delivered 4,290 Grumman fighters during the first 8 months of this year.

Engineering & Research Corp, Riverdale, MD, produces its postwar Ercoupe, which is priced at $2,994.

Fairchild Aircraft Division of Fairchild Engine & Airplane Corp concentrates on production of the C-82 Packet. Its Personal Planes Division at Dallas, TX is created late this year to design and manufacture a practical airplane for private owners. First model built is an improved version of the F-24, known throughout the War as the UC-61 Forwarder.

Ford Motor Co turns out 1,486 B-24 (Consolidated) Liberators this year before cancellation of its War contracts.

G & A Aircraft, Inc, a subsidiary of Firestone Tire & Rubber Co, delivers the first XR-9 helicopter to the Army this year.

Globe Aircraft Corp, Fort Worth, TX goes into production on the Globe GC-1A Swift.

Goodyear Aircraft Corp, Akron, OH, produces 1,529 Corsairs up to V-J Day.

Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp introduces the latest of its Navy fighters, the F8F Bearcat. Producing 4,038 military airplanes this year, Grumman offers a commercial version of the Widgeon as its first postwar private airplane.

Kellett Aircraft Corp delivers one YO-60 rotating wing model to the Army and develops the XR-8 helicopter for its postwar commercial possibilities.

Lockheed Aircraft Corp delivers 2,821 military airplanes this this year before termination of its contracts. While the company continues with experimental contracts for the Army on the P-80 Shooting Star, its facilities are now being utilized for production of the Model 649 Constellation air-line transport.

Luscombe Airplane Corp introduces the postwar 8A Silvaire, reaching production of three airplanes per day at the end of the year.

The Glenn L Martin Co delivers 991 military airplanes this year and announces the development of a practical transport for the air lines for postwar delivery. This plane will be known as the Martin 2-0-2.

McDonnell Aircraft Corp, St Louis, MO, climaxes its War activities with production of the FD-1 Phantom, twin-jet Navy fighter.

Meyers Aircraft Co, Tecumseh, MI, has two new models of personal aircraft designed for postwar construction.

Nash-Kelvinator, Detroit, delivers 214 R-6 and YR-6 Sikorsky helicopters this year, before cancellation of its contracts.

Naval Aircraft Factory turns out 19 PBN (Consolidated) Catalina flying boats. [PBN-1 Nomad is the usual reference for the NAF planes, which were somewhat modified PBY Catalinas. —JLM]

North American Aviation, Inc, having delivered 8,219 Mustang, Mitchell, and Texan military airplanes this year, produces the world's first twin-fuselage fighter airplane, the P-82 Twin Mustang.

Northrop Aircraft, Inc, completes its war contract for P-61 Black Widow night fighters, delivering 219 of this model.

Piper Aircraft Corp, Lock Haven, PA, which delivered 5,000 Grasshoppers for the Army during the War, turns out commercial versions of the J-3 Cub series in mass quantity for the postwar market.

Republic Aviation Corp, Farmingdale, LI, fulfills its final Army contract for P-47 fighters, with delivery of the 15,329th Republic-built Thunderbolt late in November. Company now has prototype of two commercial airplanes for the postwar market: the Rainbow transport and the four-place Seabee.

Ryan Aeronautical Co, San Diego, CA, rushes into production in September a new jet-pushed, propeller-pulled fighter airplane, designated the FR-1 Fireball. 66 of these are built before the end of the year. (See illus p 87)

Sikorsky Aircraft Division of United Aircraft Corp produces its new four-place S-51 helicopter, the commercial version of the R-5 military model.

Southern Aircraft Division, Portable Products Corp, Garland, TX is developing a roadable airplane, with demountable wings, which can be used both in the air and on the ground.

Taylorcraft Division, Detroit Aircraft Products, Inc, Alliance, OH, formerly Taylorcraft Aviation Corp, resumes production of its light personal airplanes with the Model BC12D.

Chance Vought Aircraft Division, United Aircraft Corp, turns out 2,046 F4U Corsairs this year. Its production rate on August 14 was one complete airplane every 82 min.

Waco Aircraft Co, Troy, OH, completes its remarkable wartime production records of troop-carrying gliders and begins reconversion of its plant for production of commercial airplanes.

Westinghouse organizes its Aviation Gas Turbine Division at Philadelphia, PA, and starts into the development and manufacture of Jet propulsion engines for aircraft

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Page 89 is a page of photos;
"Other Famous American Planes of World War II".
[ 13 photos ]
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January — War Department announces projects for two guided missiles: Felix, a missile attracted to a target within a limited radius by heat; and Roc, a projectile equipped with television to scan a target and relay vital information back to the controlling aircraft

January 1 — There are now 30,881 licensed civil aircraft in the US.

January 7 — Vice Adm Emory S Land accepts offer to become President of the Air Transport Association.

January 9 — US Aviation Underwriters, Inc, announce a new simplified aircraft liability insurance policy for the use of aircraft dealers and fixed-base operators.

January 10 — Army R-5 Sikorsky helicopter sets six new official world's records for speed and altitude at Bridgeport, CT.

January 13 — Moisant International Airport is dedicated at New Orleans.

January 26 — Col William H Council, flying a jet-propelled P-80, sets a new nonstop transcontinental record of 4 hr, 13 min, 26 sec., between Long Beach, CA, and New York.

January 29 — The Guggenheim Medal for 1945 is awarded to Theodore P Wright, Administrator of Civil Aviation.

January 31 — Only 23 aircraft engines for military airplanes are turned out this month as compared with a single war-month production of 24,102. 163 airplanes are accepted by the Army and Navy for the month.

February 1 — Association of Aviation Underwriters announces 30 per cent reduction in personal accident insurance rate for domestic airline passengers.

February 3 — A TWA Lockheed Constellation carrying 45 passengers and a crew of seven flies from Los Angeles to New York in 7 hr, 27 min, 47 sec, beating the previous commercial flight record by over 4 hr.

February 4 — AFL Labor Union strike at Consolidated Vultee plant in San Diego stops all production of Army, Navy, and civilian planes.

February 14 — Domestic air lines now have on hand, or have made purchase commitments for, 554 new transport airplanes valued at approximately $260,000,000. $71,000,000 worth of surplus airplanes from the Army have also been converted into commercial transports.

February 19 — Capt S Paul Johnston, USNR, is appointed Director of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences to replace Major Lester D Gardner, who plans to retire in April after 15 years of splendid service.

March 12 — The first commercial helicopter license issued by the Civil Aeronautics Administration is granted to Bell Aircraft Corporation on its two-place Model 47.

March 22 — The first American-built rocket to actually leave the Earth's atmosphere is constructed by Douglas Aircraft Company, Inc, and reaches a 50-mile height.

March 27 — US and France sign bilateral Five Freedoms Agreement, substantially the same as the one signed by the US and Britain in Bermuda recently, giving reciprocal rights for the operation of each country's commercial air lines over the territory of the other.

March 29 — James M Landis is named CAB Chairman to succeed L Welch Pogue.

April 4 — Sears, Roebuck & Company begins regular weekly overnight shipment of women's clothing by air from New York to West Coast.

April 12 — Gen Carl Spaatz is appointed member of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics by President Truman to succeed Gen H H Arnold.

April 12 — Major R H Fleet, founder of Consolidated Aircraft Corporation in 1923, resigns as Consultant of Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation.

April 22 — US Weather Service, in cooperation with the Army, Navy, NACA, Air Transport Association, and several universities, begins a series of tests in Orlando, FL, in an effort to eliminate the thunderstorm hazard in flying. Pilotless P-61 Black Widows and piloted sailplanes are scheduled to be flown into thunderstorms to obtain valuable scientific data.

May 1 — Navy demonstrates powerful new rocket engines and latest aircraft development to members of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences at a Navy Air Firepower Show at the Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River, MD.

May 9 — New York Yankees Baseball Club signs contract with United Air Lines, Inc, to travel by air throughout 1946 season, becoming the first Major League team to use air transportation for its full schedule.

May 13 — President Truman signs the Federal Airport Bill authorizing a Federal expenditure on state-matching basis of $500,000,000 for an airport construction and development program over the next 7-year period.

May 13 — An Army B-29 Superfortress, carrying a pay load of 4,400 lbs, rises to a new altitude record of 44,200 ft over the Island of Guam.

May 16 — Army Air Forces establishes an Institute of Technology to graduate 350 officers annually, trained for possible atomic warfare of the future.

May 31 — US Supreme Court upholds award by the US Court of Claims to a North Carolina farmer whose chicken-raising business is ruined by Army airplanes operating from an adjacent airport.

June 4 — Army Air Forces reveals plans for construction of five new experimental jet bombers and two fighters: the XB-45 by North American; XB-46 by Consolidated Vultee; XB-47 by Boeing; XB-48 by Martin; and the XB-49 as Northrop's jet version of the XB-35 Flying Wing. The fighters are North American's XP-86 and Curtiss-Wright's XP-87.

June 22 — Air mail is delivered for first time by Jet-powered airplanes when two Army Air Forces' P-80s carry letters from Schenectady, NY, to Washington and Chicago.

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July 3 — The Army and Navy establish a joint board to coordinate their research and development of atomic weapons and other new aids to national defense. Dr Vannevar Bush is appointed Chairman of the Board.

July 7 — Howard Hughes, in a test flight of the XF-11 photographic airplane being developed for the Army, crashes and is seriously injured.

July 11 — Civil Aeronautics Administration grounds all Lockheed Constellations for a 30-day period pending outcome of investigations of recent crashes and fires.

July 22 — Fairchild Engine & Airplane Corporation is given a preliminary contract by the War Department to develop a practical atomic engine to power projected aircraft of the future.

July 22 — L Welch Pogue is elected President of the National Aeronautic Association.

July 25 — Universal CIT Credit Corporation confirms details of a nation-wide plan for financing of personal aircraft sales on planes selling for $7,500 or less.

August 6 — Two B-17 bombers, minus pilot and crews, are flown nonstop from Hilo, Hawaii, to Muroc Lake, CA, controlled entirely by radio.

August 12 — President Truman signs Bill authorizing appropriation of $50,000 to establish a National Air Museum in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington.

August 15 — A $5.00 registration fee for registering and recording aircraft titles is inaugurated by the CAA.

August 15 — Federal Reserve Board reimposes a 12-month limitation on deferred payments on airplane sales involving an unpaid balance of less than $2,000.

August 27 — A new pilot-ejector seat, designed to catapult a pilot from the cockpits of high-speed airplanes, is successfully tested by the Army at Wright Field.

August 30 — Jack Woolams, Bell Aircraft's famous test pilot on the Army's XS-1 experimental supersonic airplane, is killed when his Bell Airacobra, in which he intended to fly in the Cleveland Air Races, crashes into Lake Ontario.

August 30-September 2 — National Air Races are held at Cleveland, where the 300-mile Thompson Trophy Race for reciprocating engines is won by Alvin M Johnston, flying a P-39 at an average speed of 373.908 mph. The jet division race is won by Major Gus Lundquist, who flies his P-80 at an average speed of 515.853 mph over the 180-mile course. The Weatherhead jet speed race over a measured-mile course is won by Lt W Reilly flying a P-80 at 578.36 mph.

August 31 — 4,658 civil aircraft, an all-time high, are manufactured this month.

September — 47 different models of personal and transport airplanes are now being built by 29 American aircraft manufacturers.

September 5 — Phillip T Henderson, 52, former Manager of the National Air Races, dies of a heart attack in Hollywood, CA.

September 24 — CAB issues new safety regulations to minimize fire hazards in transport aircraft, causing all existing commercial transports and new ones being built to incorporate certain specified design changes.

October 1 — Domestic airmail postage rates are reduced from 8 cents to 5 cents an ounce.

October 1 — The Truculent Turtle, a Lockheed P2V Neptune Navy patrol bomber, sets a new world's record for a long-distance nonstop flight, flying from Perth, Australia, to Columbus, Ohio, an unofficial distance of 11,822 miles, in slightly over 55 hrs.

October 1-18 — US Post Office Department conducts helicopter airmail tests involving 307 miles of routes around Chicago.

October 17 — John Sherman is named Executive Secretary of the Air Coordinating Committee.

October 20 — Airline Pilots Association calls a strike of TWA pilots after company fails to meet demanded pay increases.

October 28 — A fiberglass airplane wing, containing only six structural parts and no rivets, is successfully tested by engineers at Wright Field.

October 31 — There are now 71,551 civilian aircraft and 371,563 licensed pilots in the USA.

November 15 — TWA pilots' strike ends with agreement that controversial issues are to be settled by an arbitration board.

November 15-24 — National Aircraft Show is held at Cleveland.

December 3 — US, Australia, and New Zealand sign bilateral air-transport agreements.

The Daniel Guggenheim Medal for 1946 is awarded to Frank Whittle for his work on jet propulsion engines.

The Sylvanus Albert Reed Award for 1946 is presented by the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences to Robert T Jones, of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, "for his contributions to the understanding of flow phenomena around wings and bodies at speeds below and above the speed of sound."

The ten outstanding achievements in combat aviation during 1946 are listed as: the 619 mph speed set by the XP-84; development of Republic's XF-12; flight on May 17 of the first jet-propelled bomber, the Douglas XB-43; development of Flying Ram flying wing by Northrop; development of Consolidated Vultee's L-13 Flying Jeep; initial flight of the XB-35 Northrop flying wing superbomber; first test flight of Consolidated Vultee's B-36; development of General Electric and Allison J-35 jet engine; development of the Lycoming 5,000-hp reciprocating engine; and the first flight of the Bell XS-1 rocket-propelled plane.

31,594 personal aircraft are produced in the country this year, with 1,059 military aircraft being delivered to the Army and Navy.

31,198 war surplus aircraft of types usable in civil aviation have been sold by the War Assets Administration since close of the War.

43,407 aircraft engines valued at $125,900,000 are produced this year.

2,302 airplanes, with a value of $65,300,000, and 2,490 aircraft engines valued at 151 1,900,000 are exported.

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Aeronca Aircraft Corp delivers 7,555 airplanes this year.

Allison Division, General Motors Corp, leases Maywood plant No 5 at Indianapolis from the Government to build jet and reciprocating engines.

Beech Aircraft Corp, Wichita, KS, delivers 299 airplanes during 1946. Company reports gross business of $21,304,959, resulting in a loss of $228,928 on operations. Its Model 35 Bonanza receives CAA certificate in November. Firm branches out into prefabricated housing field, manufacturing components of aluminum, stainless steel, and plastics.

Bell Aircraft Corp, Buffalo, NY, produces the XP-83 twin-jet fighter and builds and conducts experiments with a modified P-63 Kingcobra having extreme sweepback to wings. Bell also completes the XS-1 supersonic test plane for the Army. Firm reports loss of $657,900 on sales of $11,546,727 for the year.

Bellanca Aircraft Corp, New Castle, DE, develops the Cruisair Senior personal plane and authorizes 51 distributors for it throughout the country. Company ships 288 airplanes this year.

Bendix Helicopter, Inc, starts construction of a plant at Stratford, CT, in which to produce the Bendix four-place helicopter.

Boeing Aircraft Co, Seattle, WA, reports a net loss of $327,198 on total income of $17,127,060. Boeing develops the Model 417 feeder-line transport but drops plans to put it in quantity production. Production of the Stratocruiser and Stratofreighter continues. Company is now engaged in the supersonic guided-missile program for the Army and concludes agreement with Chinese government whereby China may build the Boeing PT-17 Kaydet primary trainer for the Chinese Air Forces.

Brewster Aeronautical Corp is liquidated in April of this year.

Cessna Aircraft Co, Wichita, KS, produces its 120 and 140 postwar models, shipping 3,959 airplanes during 1946. Company reports a profit of $296,443 on sales of 2,336 airplanes totaling $6,327,633 for the fiscal year ending September 30.

Commonwealth Aircraft, Inc, purchases Columbia Aircraft Corp, Valley Stream, LI, and closes its manufacturing plant at Fairfax, KS

Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corp, San Diego, CA, purchases controlling interest in the ACS-Brill Motors Co, manufacturers of motor buses, trolley coaches, and specialized engines. The XP-81 fighter is developed, and the XB-36 bomber is test-flown on August 8. A net loss of $2,775,619 on total sales of $13,705,771 is reported. At close of year, company has backlog of unfilled orders amounting to $328,865,000.

Culver Aircraft Corp, Wichita, KS, now operating under court-appointed trustees, closes its plant November 8 and lays off 500 production workers.

Curtiss-Wright Corp, Airplane Division, expands its production in the fields of guided missiles, pilotless aircraft, and rocket propulsion. Numerous experimental models are developed, including the XP-55 pusher-type pursuit plane, the XP-62 pressurized-cabin fighter, and ten experimental torpedo bombers for the Navy, designated XBTC-1. The new SC-2 Seahawk is also delivered to the Navy.

Doman-Frasier Helicopters, Inc, is organized in New York to develop and manufacture a new passenger and cargo helicopter.

Douglas Aircraft Co, Inc, Santa Monica, CA, engages in a rocket and guided-missiles program for the Army and develops the XB-42 twin-engined pusher-type and the XB-43 twin-jet bombers. The DC-6 transport, the AD-1 Skyraider, and the C-74 Globemaster are also put into production. A net income of $2,180,522 is realized on total sales of $106,720,701 for the year.

Edo Aircraft Corp, float manufacturers of College Point, LI, produce their first complete Naval airplane, XOSE-1 Seahawk.

Engineering & Research Corp, Riverdale, Md., ships 2,503 Ercoupes during the first 5 months of 1946 and suspends production November 8 to allow backlog of planes built to catch up with sales.

Fairchild Engine & Airplane Corp receives a preliminary contract from the War Department for the development of a new engine utilizing atomic power. In October, the company's Pilotless Plane Division moves from Jamaica, LI, to its new home in Farmingdale.

Fairchild's F-24 personal airplanes are now being built by Texas Engineering & Mfg Co, Grand Prairie, TX.

Faircraft Corp is organized at Dansville, NY, May 1, with authorized capital stock of $250,000. On June 20, the company changes its name to Dansaire Corp and develops the Dansaire Coupe and Dansaire Sedan personal airplanes which it plans to put in production next year.

Funk Aircraft Co, Coffeyville, KS, ships 174 of its personal airplane models during 1946.

G & A Aircraft, Inc, changes its name to Firestone Aircraft Co with Roger S Firestone as President. Production of a commercial version of the Army's XR-9B helicopter is planned.

General Electric Co establishes an Aviation Division in Schenectady, NY, for handling its jet engines and aviation products.

Globe Aircraft Corp, Fort Worth, TX, ships 1,054 of its Swift models between January and November.

Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corp, Bethpage, LI, introduces the Mallard amphibian and continues production of the Widgeon and its Army and Navy models. Company reports net earnings for the year of $337,771 on gross sales of $37,615,540.

Haig Helicopter Co, Oakland, CA, produces the R-2 experimental helicopter and begins construction of a larger four-place type, designated the R-3.

Harlow Aircraft Co sells its Alhambra, CA, airport properties and suspends all aircraft activities.

George H Hervey, Consulting Engineer of Roscoe, CA, develops a four-place combination airplane and automobile, designated the Model 25 Travelplane.

Hockaday Mfg Co, Burbank, CA, introduces a two-place airplane called the Comet.

Hughes Aircraft Co, Culver City, CA, purchases from the War Assets Corp a portion of the former Kaiser-Hughes plant. Company continues construction on its giant plywood flying boat and a second model of the XF-11, high-speed photographic airplane for the Army.

International Aviation Corp, Cleveland, OH, designs and develops a new two-place amphibian, designated the Duckling.

Johnson Aircraft, Inc, Fort Worth, TX, producers of a light plane called the Rocket, changes its name in August to the Rocket Aircraft Corp.

Kaiser-Hammond, a combination of Henry Kaiser and Dean Hammond, introduces a four-five-place twin-tailed pusher airplane.

Kaman Aircraft Corp, Boston, MA, produces a helicopter in December and is granted a CAA license to test-fly it.

Kellett Aircraft Corp, which leased a new plant from the War Assets Administration at North Wales, PA, in May, designs a twin-engined all-metal ten-passenger helicopter as an outgrowth of its Model XR-10, delivered to the Army for test-flying. Company, at present, is operating under a court-appointed trusteeship.

Lockheed Aircraft Corp, Burbank, CA, develops several new models this year, including the Model 89 Constitution, the Saturn feeder-line transport, and the XP-58 fighter. The company's famous Constellation is now in quantity production for the air lines. Total sales for Lockheed during 1946 amount to $113,595,663, resulting in an operating loss of $10,739,689 after tax credits. By availing itself of its $13,796,474 reserve for postwar adjustments, company increases its surplus by $3,058,785.

Luscombe Airplane Corp delivers 2,483 Silvaire models and reports a net profit of $117,872 for 1946.

Lycoming Division of The Aviation Corp, Williamsport, PA, develops the XR-7755 (X-7), the world's largest reciprocating engine to date. Engine has 36 cylinders and delivers 5,000 hp at takeoff.

Mars Mfg Co, Le Mars, IA, introduces its MI-80 two-place enclosed monoplane.

The Glenn L Martin Co, Baltimore, Md., reports a net income of $3,363,013 on net sales of $37,640,958 and awards its employees a Christmas bonus amounting to $750,000. In August Martin has ten different aircraft models in production: the 2-0-2; 3-0-3; JRM-2 Mars, AM-1 Mauler, XB-48 six-jet bomber, PBM-5 flying boat, XPBM-5A amphibian, and several restricted planes for the Army and Navy.

McDonnell Aircraft Corp, St Louis, MO, produces the XHJD-1 twin-engined helicopter and has in development several jet fighter models for the Navy.

North American Aviation, Inc, Inglewood, CA, enters the light-plane manufacturing field with the Navion, delivering 146 of these during the year Company also produces the XFJ-1 airplane for the Navy and has in development a large bomber for the Army. Sales of $55,818,518, resulting in a net profit of $4,001,062 for fiscal year ending September 30, are reported. Backlog of unfilled military orders on September 30 amounts to $160,186,346.

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Northrop Aircraft, Inc, Hawthorne, CA, produces the revolutionary XB-35 flying wing bomber and the XP-79 Flying Ram. Company also builds the F-15 Reporter and the three-engined Pioneer transport, which makes its first test flight on December 21.

Packard Motor Car Co, in November, announces development of a different and more efficient turbojet engine for airplanes and missiles.

P-V Engineering Forum, Inc, Sharon Hill, PA, changes its name to the Piasecki Helicopter Corp.

Piper Aircraft Corp, Lock Haven, PA, takes over a large hangar at Ponca City, OK, as an added assembly plant for its airplanes. 7,780 airplanes are delivered in 1946. Net sales of $11,197,358.73 result in a net operating loss of $365,437 for the fiscal year ending September 30.

Puget Pacific Planes, Inc, Tacoma, WA, introduces a four-place pusher-type all-metal personal airplane, designated the Wheelair III.

Republic Aviation Corp, Farmingdale, LI, develops four new outstanding airplanes this year, including the P-84 Thunderjet, XF-12 photo-reconnaissance plane, the Rainbow transport, and the Seabee amphibian. 196 Seabee personal airplanes are delivered this year.

Ross Aircraft Corp, New York, announces plans for production of the 65-hp personal airplane designated Model RS2-L.

Rotor-Craft Corp develops a two-place helicopter, the XR-11, for the Army.

Ryan Aeronautical Co, San Diego, CA, creates a Stainless-Steel Mfg Division and continues large-scale production of exhaust assemblies and other aircraft components. Company reports a net profit of $300,320 on a gross business of $11,973,353 for the year.

St Louis Aircraft Corp goes out of the aircraft manufacturing industry.

Sikorsky Aircraft Division, United Aircraft Corp, produces two model helicopters this year, the S-52 and the S-51.

Southern Aircraft Division of Portable Products Corp builds an amphibian designated the Southernaire Model 11 and experiments with a roadable airplane.

Stinson Division, Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corp, produces the Voyager 150 and the Flying Station Wagon, delivering 1,436 of these planes this year.

Taylorcraft Aviation Corp, Alliance, OH, ships 3,151 airplanes before the company goes into bankruptcy in November.

Texas Engineering & Mfg Co is formed by Robert McCullough and H L Howard, formerly with North American Aviation, Inc, at Grand Prairie, TX. Company receives contract from Globe Aircraft and Fairchild to produce the Globe Swift and the Fairchild F-24 personal airplanes. Company ships 563 Fairchild models during the year.

Thorp Aircraft Co, formerly known as John W Thorp & Co, moves from Burbank to Van Nuys, CA, and engages in development of a two-place all-metal low-wing airplane called the Sky-Shooter.

United Aircraft Corp reports a net income for 1946 of $6,060,749. Its Pratt & Whitney, Hamilton Standard Propellers, Chance Vought Aircraft, and Sikorsky Aircraft divisions enter 1947 with back orders totaling $285 000,000.

United Helicopters, Inc, leases a building at Palo Alto, CA, where it designs and produces several experimental helicopter models.

Volmer Aircraft Co's President, Volmer Jensen, purchases back from the Jarvis Mfg Co, Glendale, CA, the manufacturing rights and the prototype of the Jarvis Jaybird, which he originally designed. Plane is renamed the Volmer VJ-21.

Chance Vought Aircraft Division, United Aircraft Corp, develops the XF6U-1 Pirate for the Navy and builds an experimental bat-wing fighter, designated the XF5U-1.

Waco Aircraft Co, Troy, Ohio, announces a new four-place high-wing monoplane, called the Aristocraft, which it intends to put in production in February, 1947.

Weatherly-Campbell Aircraft Co, Dallas, TX, announces a new all-metal light airplane, the Colt.

Westinghouse Electric Corp produces a new axial-flow jet engine, designated Model 24-C, which is also to go into production at Allison and Wright plants.

Wright Aeronautical Corp, division of the Curtiss-Wright Corp, purchases the Woodridge, NJ, plant from the War Assets Administration and moves all of its manufacturing activities into the new location.

Highlights and Headlines

January 1 — There are now 4,026 airports and seaplane bases in the US.

January — Preston R Bassett, President of Sperry Gyroscope Co, Inc, is elected President of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences for 1947.

January 1 — There are now 81,002 registered civil aircraft in the US and Territories.

January 3 — CAA grants NC license to Goodyear's three-place Duck amphibian.

January 7 — Globe Aircraft to continue operation under court-appointed trusteeship.

January 13 — Platt LePage Aircraft Co, Eddystone, PA, goes into voluntary liquidation.

January 15 — Lt Gen Oliver P Echols assumes Presidency of Aircraft Industries Association.

January 20 — Portal-to-portal pay suits filed against aircraft manufacturers now total $440,973,000.

January 21 — Clair Leroy Barnes, 65, President of Bendix Helicopter, Inc, dies in New York.

January 23 — Capt "Eddie" Rickenbacker, President of Eastern Air Lines, Inc, is awarded Medal for Merit.

January 24 — War Assets Administration has thousands of surplus engines for sale.

January 31 — Wright Aeronautical Corp announces new 1,525-hp model of the Wright Cyclone 9.

February 1-8 — New York Aviation Show of 1947 held at Grand Central Palace.

February 5 — Aircraft manufacturers tell Congress that Government funds are needed for safety research.

February 6 — Igor I Sikorsky is awarded the Gold Medal of the Fédération Aeronautique Internationale.

February 11 — Jack Frye resigns as member of Executive Committee of TWA. Hughes adds 13 new Directors to Board.

February 14 — The Glenn L Martin Co acquires assets and patents of Rotawings, Inc, Philadelphia.

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February 18 — Engineering & Research Corp resumes production of Ercoupes.

February 21 — AAF orders discontinuance of Air Reserve Training Program at 29 bases because of lack of appropriations.

February 23 — John Gilbert ("Tex") Rankin, pioneer aviator and pilot, is killed at Klamath Falls, OR.

February 25 — CAA demonstrates a new stall-warning instrument it has developed.

February 28 — An Army P-82 [Twin-]Mustang fighter flies 5,051 miles nonstop from Honolulu to New York in 15 hr, 33 min.

February 28 — Paul Mantz breaks the West-East record for propeller-driven single-engined planes, flying from Burbank, CA, to La Guardia Field, NY, in 6 hr, 7 min, 5 sec, in a P-51 Mustang.

March 4 — CAA accepts delivery of a Fairchild PT-19 trainer equipped with new cross-wind landing gear.

March — Consolidated Vultee XB-36 bomber, being tested by AAF, takes off at a gross weight of 278,000 lbs.

March 13 — Strat Aircraft Corp is organized at Bridgeport, CT, to manufacture personal planes.

March 14 — Poll of 1,000 passengers taken by Air Transport Command reveals 96 per cent favor riding in seats facing rear of the airplane.

March 14 — Commonwealth Aircraft, Inc, New York, suspends production of aircraft.

March 18 — Sherman M Fairchild, former Director and Chairman of Fairchild Engine & Airplane Corp, organizes new firm known as Sherman Fairchild & Associates to specialize in business analyses and forecasts of technical developments.

March 25 — The Aviation Corp changes its name to Avco Manufacturing Corp

March 28 — Rear Adm Alfred M Pride is nominated as Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics, US Navy.

April 9 — Samuel Stewart Bradley, 78, aviation pioneer, dies at his home in New York.

April 14 — Bell Aircraft is building a second Army experimental rocket-powered supersonic airplane, the XS-2.

April 15 — Milton Reynolds and his crew, flying a converted Douglas A-26 bomber, fly around the world in 78 hr, 55 min, 56 sec, establishing a new record.

April 15 — North American Aviation, Inc, suspends production on its Navion personal airplane after building 1,108.

April 25 — Taylorcraft, Inc, is organized by nine dealers and distributors of the defunct Taylorcraft Aviation Corp, to produce airplanes designed by C G Taylor.

May 1 — Alfred Marchev, former President of Republic Aviation Corp, resigns as Chairman of the Board of Republic.

May 21 — NACA reveals practically noiseless airplane, having five-bladed propeller and muffled exhaust.

May — Piper Aircraft Corp temporarily closes down to allow sales to catch up with production.

June 2 — CAB gives first helicopter route certificate to Los Angeles Airways.

June 2 — AAF awards $10,000,000 contract to Boeing Airplane Co for replacement parts for B-29 bombers.

June 2 — Beech Aircraft Corp announces the new Model 34 Beechcraft, a short-haul transport.

June 2 — Navy awards $3,150,000 contract for replacement parts for the Curtiss Helldiver, Seascout, and Commando airplanes.

June 3 — Jacqueline Cochran is awarded the Ligue Harmon Trophy for the years 1940-1946.

June 5 — Waco Aircraft Co discontinues development and tooling on its four-place Aristocraft.

June 5 — AAF announces the XJ-37 turbojet engine, developed by Lockheed and Menasco.

June 5 — Pratt & Whitney Aircraft announces development of the R-2180 1,650-hp engine for medium transports.

June 6 — Navy announces details of the new jet-plus-propeller-powered XFR-4 Ryan fighter plane.

June 9 — AAF places order for 100 B-36 bombers with Consolidated Vultee.

June 11 — Allison Division, General Motors Corp, develops a new jet engine rated at 7,500 hp at 600 mph. Also announces production of its new V-1710-G6 2,250-hp liquid-cooled engine.

June — Curtiss-Wright puts final touches to the mock-up of its CW-32 cargo transport at Columbus, OH, plant.

June 12 — Boeing Aircraft's new B-50 bomber rolls off a final assembly line at Seattle.

June 12 — Thorp Aircraft Co's two-place personal plane, the Sky-Shooter, receives approved type certificate.

June 12 — Contract to develop a Standard Aeronautical Index is awarded to the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences by the Army and Navy.

June 15 — President Truman appoints Special Board on Air Safety as result of three recent airline accidents.

June 16 — Major Lester D Gardner is awarded the 1947 Daniel Guggenheim Medal "for outstanding achievements in advancing aeronautics, particularly for his conception and organization of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences."

June 17 — Princeton University starts construction of a 4,000-mph wind tunnel.

June 19 — Aeronca Aircraft Corp is awarded Army contract to build 439 Model 7BC liaison planes.

June — Air Transport Command takes delivery on its first Boeing C-97.

June 19 — United Aircraft Corp acquires rights to 200 helicopter patents from Autogiro Co of America.

June — Fairchild Engine & Airplane Corp opens a school at Oak Ridge, TN, for instructing research workers on the use of nuclear energy for the propulsion of aircraft.

June 19 — The Lockheed P-80R, under test at the Army's Muroc base, establishes a world's speed record of 623.3 mph.

June 23 — Texas Engineering & Manufacturing Co (Temco) purchases the assets of the bankrupt Globe Aircraft Corp.

June 25 — North American Aviation, Inc, sells the design and manufacturing rights on its Navion personal plane to Ryan Aeronautical Co.

June 25 — Volmer-Carssow Aircraft Co is organized at Los Angeles to produce the Volmer VJ-21 light plane.

June 26 — Navy awards Curtiss-Wright $2,000,000 contract for overhaul of 36 Navy R5C Commando transports.

June 30 — 10,697 private planes, valued at $33,976,000, are produced by eleven manufacturers during the first 6 months of this year.

July 2 — The first double-deck Boeing Stratocruiser is completed at Boeing Airplane Co's Seattle plant.

July 3 — Of the 500 or more training fields the AAF had during the War, only three are now in active operation.

July 7 —Martin 3-0-3 successfully completes test flight.

July 7 — CAA gives contract to Goodyear Aircraft Corp for a castered landing gear on a DC-3 transport.

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July 9 — Aircooled Motors, Inc, receives new $1,000,000 contract from AAF for 245-hp Franklin engines.

July 14 — The Kellett XR-10, AAF's largest helicopter, successfully completes its first flight test.

July 17 — Boeing Aircraft Co announces development of two new lightweight gas-turbine engines, Models 500 and 502.

July 17 — AAF discloses development of a small jet fighter, the XP-85, produced by McDonnell Aircraft Corp.

July 17 — Beech Aircraft Corp raises the price on its Bonanza from $7,975 to $8,945.

July 17 — Edgar Gott, one of the original incorporators of Boeing Airplane Co, and later Vice-President of Consolidated Vultee, dies at San Diego, CA, at the age of 60.

July 21 — Bellanca Aircraft Corp increases price of its Cruisair Senior Model A from $5,950 to $6,250.

July — President Truman establishes an Air Policy Commission and names Thomas K Finletter, New York attorney, as Chairman.

July 22 — Bauman Aircraft Co, Van Nuys, CA, announces a new five-place executive transport, the Brigadier 250.

July 23 — $1,000,000 fire at Rosecrans Airport, St Joseph, MO, destroys a large hangar, two C-54s, and a machine shop.

July 25 — Army-Navy Merger Bill goes to President Truman for signature.

July 28 — Douglas releases specifications on its contemplated DC-9 28-passenger transport.

July 29 — Lockheed is awarded $2,500,000 AAF contract for 32 Lockheed P-80B Shooting Stars.

July 31 — 991 personal aircraft are produced this month.

August — North American Aviation's XSN2J-1 new Navy trainer undergoes flight tests at Pawtuxent River, MD.

August 1 — Exports of personal aircraft so far this year total 1,094 planes having a value of $4,125,535.

August 1 — Seven Army B-29 Superfortresses make a record-breaking mass flight from Tokyo, Japan, to Washington, DC.

August l — James V Forrestal is appointed to the newly created post, Secretary of Defense.

August 1 — Dansaire Corp offers for sale the manufacturing rights and prototype of the three-place Dansaire coupe.

August 4 — Frank H Russell, aircraft manufacturing industry pioneer, dies at his home in Newton, PA.

August 7 — S Paul Johnston, Director of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences, is appointed Executive Director of President Truman's recently created Air Policy Commission.

August 8 — Adolph L Berger, Mechanical Engineer with the Air Materiel Command, Wright Field, is recipient of The Thurman H Bane Award for 1947 for his work in developing new types of high-temperature ceramic materials for coating low-alloy metals in new-type aircraft engines.

August 10 — William Odom flies around the world in 73 hr. 5 min, 11 sec, establishing new solo record. Airplane used is the converted Douglas A-26 bomber previously flown around the globe by Milton Reynolds and crew in April.

August 11 — Senate War Investigation Committee suddenly recesses hearings on Hughes Tool Co airplane contracts.

August 11 — Bell Aircraft Corp's new five-place helicopter for the Army, the XR-12, undergoes preliminary test flights.

August 13 — Charles H Colvin, New York aviation consultant and former President of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences, is appointed to a post on the President's Air Policy Commission.

August 13 — Martin 2-0-2 transport is licensed by the CAA.

August 20 — Navy's Douglas-built D-558 Skystreak, piloted by Comdr T F Caldwell, Jr, sets new world's speed record of 640.7 mph over a measured 3-kilometer course at Muroc Dry Lake Air Base.

August 22 — Dr Hugh L Dryden is appointed Director of Aeronautical Research of the NACA, replacing Dr George W Lewis who retires after 28 years of service.

August 25 — Douglas D-558 Skystreak, piloted by Major Marion Carl, US Marines, raises world speed mark to 650.6 mph at Muroc Dry Lake Air Base.

August 30-September 2 — Cleveland Air Races held. Thompson Trophy Race won by Cook Cleland flying converted F2G-1 Corsair at 396.161 mph over 300-mile course. Paul Mantz wins Bendix classic again, flying the 2,045 miles in his P-51 Mustang at average speed of 460.423 mph. Goodyear Trophy Race is won by Wm F Brennand flying the Wittman Special at 165.857 mph.

September 2-6 — First joint Technical Sessions by the Royal Aeronautical Society, Great Britain, and the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences, held in London, England.

September — Under Army-Navy merger, James V Forrestal becomes first Secretary of National Defense; W Stuart Symington, Secretary of the Department of the Air Force; Major Gen William H Draper, Undersecretary of War; and Major Gen Alfred M Gruenther, Director of the new joint Army-Navy-Air Force Staff of 100 to be created.

September 4 — Avco Manufacturing Corporation relinquishes control of Convair to Atlas Corporation.

September 21 — Air Force C-54 automatic robot airplane flies from Wilmington, OH, to Brize-Norton, England, and return.

September 22 — Lt Gen Ira C Eaker is named Vice-President of Hughes Tool Company.

September — National Aircraft Corporation is organized to promote novel channel-wing airplane designed by W R Custer.

October 2 — Republic discontinues production of Seabee.

October 13 — Monocoupe Airplane & Engine Corporation is purchased by West Virginia aviation group; plant moved from Orlando to Melbourne, FL.

October 28 — Howard Hughes giant flying boat makes successful trial flight of 1 mile. November — Experimental and combat airplanes revealed by the Army and Navy during the last three months include: the Boeing XB-47 six-jet bomber; Boeing XB-52 heavy bomber; Convair XP-92 supersonic fighter; Curtiss XP-87 four-jet fighter; Douglas XF3D-1 twin-jet fighter; Douglas Navy jet-rocket Skyrocket; Grumman XJR2F-1 Navy transport; Lockheed XP-90 supersonic fighter; McDonald XP-88 twin-jet fighter; McDonald jet helicopter; North American XP-86 swept-wing fighter; Northrop YB-49 eight-jet bomber; Northrop XP-79 Flying Ram; and the Vought F4U-5 Corsair fighter.

November 26 — Truman-Evans round-the-world flight in two Piper Cubs successfully completed.

November 26 — First edition of Eaton Manufacturing Company's Chronicle of the Aviation Industry in America goes to press.