Arguably the first operational cruise missile, the V-1 (Vergeltungswaffen 1, Vengeance Weapon 1), otherwise Buzz bomb or Doodlebug was responsible for a great deal of damage in England, especially around London. It was manufactured as the Fieseler Fi-103. Several, essentially unsuccessful, attempts were made to adapt the airframe as a piloted missile — the Reichenberg planes — but the only consequential usage was the cruise missile version.